The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the introduction of typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) for infants and children over six months of age in typhoid-endemic countries. This new policy will help ensure access to typhoid vaccination in communities most impacted by the disease, which is responsible for nearly 12 million infections and between 128,000 and 161,000 deaths a year.
WHO issued these recommendations following a review of evidence on TCVs by WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on Immunization in October 2017. The group considered data on vaccine safety, efficacy, feasibility, and affordability, as well as growing rates of drug-resistant typhoid. Based on these discussions, SAGE recommended TCVs for children over the age of six months. These recommendations were accepted and reported in the WHO updated position paper on typhoid vaccines in the Weekly Epidemiological Report published on March 30, 2018.
The clinical trials are meant to test the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) according to the Malawi-Liverpool Wellcome Trust which is running the programme.
About 24,000 children aged from nine months to 12 years will take part in the study funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
“Many parents are sceptical about the vaccine. But I know it will be helpful. We just have to protect our children and babies. typhoid is claiming many lives both in rural and urban areas,” said Christopher Kondowe, Golden’s father.
“The coming in of this vaccine is very significant in Ndirande because we have a huge population of about 140,373. And with the study that our colleagues did, they found that Ndirande has a lot of typhoid cases. So, the coming in of this vaccine will help to reduce the number of cases that we register,” said Mwagomba, a senior
A typhoid vaccine (TyVac) trial is set to kick-off in Malawi’s commercial capital Blantyre on Wednesday, February 14th.
Programme Manager for the TyVac Research at the Malawi Liverpool Welcome Trust (MLW), Teresa Misili, confirmed the date with Zodiak Online.
The trial will be conducted in Ndirande and Zingwangwa townships, targeting children of between 9 months and 12 years.
Misili told Zodiak they have intensified campaigns for the vaccine trial.
“We have started our massive campaign programme to reach out to all the stakeholders from the ground to the highest level. We have been engaged in sensitization meetings; we started with the city council where we met parliamentarians and councilors.
“We’re now meeting chiefs, religious leaders, women’s and youth groups, CBOs and all the schools - both government primary schools and nursery schools,” said Misili.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) on Jan.03 endorsed the first conjugate vaccine for typhoid.
Dubbed Typbar TVC, the vaccine which has been approved to be introduced by interested countries on their immunization programmes can be administered to children younger than two years of age. Unlike older vaccines, this is said to have longer lasting immunity and requires few doses.
The WHO has given its nod to Bharat Biotech’s typhoid vaccine Typbar TCV, which has longer-lasting immunity than existing vaccines, requires fewer doses and can be used on recipients over six months of age.
The WHO pre-qualification paves the way for health and humanitarian organisations such as UNICEF, GAVI and Pan American Health Organisation to procure it for public health vaccination programmes across the world.
“The fact that the vaccine has been pre-qualified by the WHO means that it meets acceptable standards of quality, safety and efficacy. This makes the vaccine eligible for procurement by UN agencies such as UNICEF and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance,” the WHO said in a statement.
In October 2017, the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunisation, which advises the WHO, recommended TCV for routine use in children over six months of age in typhoid endemic countries.
No currently available vaccines against typhoid are meant for children younger than 2, but a new conjugate vaccine manufactured by India’s Bharat Biotech as Typbar-TCV could change that.
Following a recent meeting, the World Health Organization’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on Immunization recommended (PDF) the capsular Vi-polysaccharide conjugate vaccine for infants and children over 6 months in typhoid endemic regions. The group further said catch-up immunizations for those under 15 years old should begin, depending on local disease prevalence.
The expert panel based its decision on a recent phase 2b trial carried out by the University of Oxford, the first efficacy trial on the vaccine. All together, investigators split 112 healthy adults in the U.K. into three groups that received either Bharat Biotech’s shot, Sanofi Pasteur’s nonconjugated version called Typhim Vi or placebo. To save time waiting for subjects to contract the disease naturally, the trial used a “controlled human infection" model, where volunteers were deliberately infected with the pathogen, or in this case, live typhoid bacteria.
As results published in The Lancet show, the vaccine halved the total number of infections, and researchers estimated that its efficacy could reach as high as 87% under an alternative definition of typhoid fever.
Vaccine-maker Bharat Biotech said its next-generation typhoid vaccine Typbar-TCV has demonstrated safety and efficacy in a high-risk human challenge clinical study carried out at Oxford University.
Quoting findings from the study published in the journal The Lancet, the company claimed the vaccine produced 87% effectiveness.
The study is said to be the first to demonstrate that immunisation with Typbar-TCV was safe, well tolerated and would have significant impact on disease incidence in typhoid endemic areas that introduce the vaccine, a release from the company said.