Missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV)
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NEW! WHO resources on Catch-up Vaccination

NEW!  WHO resources on Catch-up Vaccination 1.      

Evidence to action: It's time for 5 dose measles vials, to meet immunization program needs and realities

Greetings, everyone. I hope that you are healthy and keeping your spirits up amidst these trying times. In March this year, just before COVID-19 shutdowns, I visited health facilities i

Health outcomes in urban areas are generally better than those in rural areas, but when outcomes in urban areas are disaggregated, large disparities exist between the richest and poorest. Current immunization delivery platforms are based on more...

Reducing missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) is a strategy to increase immunization coverage simply by making better use of existing vaccination sites (at health centres, hospitals, outreach/mobile services etc.).

The purpose of this document is to provide up-to-date information to support countries in making informed decisions around the appropriate yellow fever vaccine (YFV) vial presentations for routine immunization tailored to the country’s context and...

Sierra Leone: A randomized controlled trial of last-mile delivery of vaccines in remote areas

The document summarises progress and challenges with achieving universal immunisation coverage in 2021.

Estrategias de cadenas de suministro de inmunización (ISC) para recuperar terreno y reducir las oportunidades perdidas de vacunación (MOV)

Timely vaccination is important for ensuring populations are fully protected against life-threatening illnesses as early as possible, and preventing large outbreaks of VPDs. Yet, scheduled vaccinations may be missed for a number of reasons, e.g. due...

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to disruptions to routine immunization programs in India and around the world, setting the stage for potentially serious outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. This study surveyed pediatric healthcare providers in...

Figures Figure 1 Figure 2 Table References Related Materials PDF pdf icon[182K] State and local school vaccination requirements serve to protect students against vaccine-preventable diseases (1). This report summarizes data collected by...

This article discusses some aspects of the recovery of vaccination coverage in Spain for different groups: children, adolescents and adults, and patients at risk and in special situations.

Disturbances are occurring in healthcare, trade, and travel, with countries closing off their borders due to the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) in the world. The pandemic has its impact on the delivery of important health services,...

This study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) and participation in the routine infant vaccination programme in the Netherlands.

This study reviews the administrative routine immunization data from 15 African countries for the period from January 2018 to June 2020 to analyze the trends in the monthly number of children vaccinated with specific antigens, and compare the...

The goal of this study was to assess the change in children’s and adolescents’ prevention and vaccination behaviors amid China’s COVID-19 epidemic.

The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of childhood vaccination disruption and to determine the predictors of delaying childhood vaccinations during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic among Indonesian ...

Like the climate crisis, the COVID-19 pandemic could be regarded as a child-rights crisis because it could have life-threatening impact over children, who need immunization, now and in the long-term. In the current review, we have discussed delays...

Since COVID-19 in the pediatric population is infrequently severe, the indirect costs of the pandemic, related to the measures implemented to deal with the spread of the virus, can be worse than the infection itself. To assess this issue, we...

The COVID-19 global pandemic is having a widespread impact on medical care. A general reduction, in routine vaccination activities, could occur. In Tuscany (Central Italy), paediatricians (in agreement with the regional health service) administer...

The COVID-19 pandemic is impacting national and international public health. Routine childhood immunization may be adversely affected by COVID-19 mitigation measures. We aimed to identify the prevalence of delayed immunization and explore the...

Objective: To examine recent vaccination trends among Brazilian children during their first year of life, and the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on these trends. Methods: Monthly vaccination and birth data from the...

Reducing Childhood Immunization to Scale Up COVID-19 Immunization in Low- and Lower Middle-Income Countries: Impact on Under-Five Mortality

In Canada, the COVID-19 pandemic has interrupted many routine health services, placed additional strain on the health care system, and resulted in many Canadians being either unable or unwilling to attend routine immunization appointments. We sought...

This study aimed to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on parents' behaviour towards their children's scheduled vaccinations. This web-based cross-sectional study recruited 1,143 parents/guardians of children below six years of age...

Background Despite efforts to improve childhood immunization coverage in Nigeria, coverage has remained below the national acceptable level. In December 2019, we conducted an assessment of Missed Opportunities for Vaccination (MOV) in Ondo State,...

Using information available through routine health information systems (RHIS), Data for Impact (D4I) assessed the effects of COVID-19 on health service use in Bangladesh more than a year into the pandemic. The study examined national usage patterns...

Childhood immunisation services have been disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. WHO recommends considering outbreak risk using epidemiological criteria when deciding whether to conduct preventive vaccination campaigns during the pandemic. We used two...

This studies compares vaccination activity in Victoria in 2019 and 2020 by analysing de-identified Australian Immunisation Register (AIR) surveillance data.

The COVID-19 pandemic poses unprecedented challenges for healthcare services and has led to changes in the usage pattern of the pediatric population. This article aims to describe the impact of COVID-19 on children's health, wellbeing, and access to...

After the first COVID-19 case was diagnosed in March, 2020, child health service delivery and use declined in rural remote communities in Bangladesh. We retrieved annual data for 2019 and 2020 from Bangladesh's district health information system...

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted measles immunisation in Africa, increasing risk of outbreaks among children in some countries. Sanjeet Bagcchi reports.

This study compared the most used sources of information by caregivers for scheduled childhood vaccination in Saudi Arabia before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and examined the effect of this decision-making.

Routine immunisation programmes are at risk of disruption due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to investigate the resilience of the Swedish national immunisation programme for children up to the age of five years during the early stages of...

The most common health worker behaviors that lead to MOV are: Failure to screen vaccination status during routine or curative visits; Confusion about eligibility for missed vaccinations; Confusion regarding false contraindications; and Concerns over...

The COVID-19 pandemic threatens to set back major successes that have been achieved in global vaccine initiatives. We conducted a rapid review and synthesis of the literature on immunization provision and Utilization since the onset of the COVID-19...

Background Despite the remarkable achievements of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in Burkina Faso, numerous challenges remain, including missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) which occur when people visit a health facility with at...

Timely vaccination is important for ensuring populations are fully protected against life-threatening illnesses as early as possible, and preventing large outbreaks of VPDs. Yet, scheduled vaccinations may be missed for a number of reasons, e.g. due...

A key strategy to reduce MOV is to screen and vaccinate all children who are missing vaccinations—and this, in part, relies on informed and prepared caregivers. In this video, we will look at interventions to address the most common caregiver...

There are ways to reduce MOV, and vaccinate more children simply by improving the services they are already accessing. In order to identify the most effective interventions, it is important to understand the reasons behind MOV. These may relate to...

This PPT resource outlines considerations for prioritizing strategies for restarting immunization services and and planning catch-up strategies specifically in the context of Covid-19 and makes reference, where applicable, to more comprehensive...

In November 2016, the Kenya National Vaccines and Immunization Programme conducted an assessment of missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) using the World Health Organization (WHO) MOV methodology. A MOV includes any contact with health services...

Efforts to reduce missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) can increase immunization coverage by making better use of existing vaccination sites and services. As health workers and supervisors, it is important to recognize why MOV happen, so that...

Every day, children around the world access our health services. They may be there to receive treatment, get a checkup, or just accompany a caregiver. But too often, they leave without something that is essential for their long-term health:...

Missed opportunities for immunization are an obstacle to raising immunization coverage among children and women of childbearing age. To determine their global magnitude and reasons, studies reported up to July 1991 were reviewed. A standard...

In 2016, Kenya conducted a study of missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV)—when eligible children have contact with the health system but are not fully vaccinated—to explore some of the reasons for persistent low vaccination coverage. This...

This case study describes the impact of changing to 5-dose measles containing vaccine in Zambia with improved coverage, lower wastage rate and no cold chain constraints.

Example of a vaccination calendar from Thailand that includes their accelerated schedule

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