TechNet-21 - Forum

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  1. Imran Mirza
  2. Cold chain equipment
  3. Tuesday, 16 February 2016

In African countries during vaccination campaigns or outreach activities in distant places, traditional cold boxes used for vaccine transport may stay cold for a maximum of about four days (if not opened frequently) in ambient temperatures of around 30°C. Health workers some times need to carry frozen ice packs for distribution too. Vaccine carriers used by health workers for campaigns and routine outreach sessions traditionally have a cold life of less than one day. A major challenge facing small, remote health facilities with limited access to equipment maintenance and repair services is to keep vaccines at proper temperatures for much longer periods of time during transport and storage without exposing vaccines to freezing temperatures.

If car battery (connected through cigarette lighter socket) operated cold boxes are available, will these help vaccinators during distant outreach activities or during campaigns especially in Africa where teams may have to travel for few days to reach the communities? Currently no WHO pre-qualified car battery operated cold boxes are available. While in market you can find domestic cold boxes with refrigeration and freezing compartments.

Imran

Moderator Accepted Answer
Admin

[On behalf of Pierre de Vasson

Dear TechNet 21 colleagues,
 
Would you contribute to this list of the active/compressor transportation cooler (that can be powered via 12V cigarette lighter of a truck) and their source ? 
WHO prequalified or not ?
 
For instance 
Haier, China :
 
Dometic, USA
 
Thanks and best regards,
 
Pierre de Vasson
  1. more than a month ago
  2. Cold chain equipment
  3. # 1
YUTA FUJIHARA Accepted Answer

Dear Imran,

kindly please refer the atttached to see temp and power consumption information. It would be great to prepare enough capacity of battery orLithium-ion battery to keep the temp overnight without engin power resource. We can discuss the detail to solve the issue. Also, Cool Cargo can run on solar palel system. I attached a sample picture of solar panel system. Please kindly see the foldable solar sheet for your future ieda,too.

Attachments (4)
  1. more than a month ago
  2. Cold chain equipment
  3. # 2
YUTA FUJIHARA Accepted Answer

Hello, I'm Yuta Fujihara from TAIYO KOGYO CORPORATION from Japan. Among our products is Cool Cargo, a transportable refrigerator/Freezer, which can run on AC,DC and even battery. Cool Cargo doesn't use a compressor; it uses a Stirling engine so it's very strong against vibration. Furthermore, the power consumption is very low compared to a compressor. We are trying to get the PQS now. If you have any questions, please feel free to ask me. I can also send you some temp, power consumption data.

  1. more than a month ago
  2. Cold chain equipment
  3. # 3
Alejo Bejemino Accepted Answer

Hello Imran,

Cold box is a passive cooling container which rely on the frozen or conditioned water packs that are placed inside the box. Its cold/cool life depends on whether the water packs are being frozen or conditioned. To convert the cold box with a power source (for example from a car battery or maybe solar array) it needs to be provided with a refrigeration system components (such as RCW 42 DC). In this case this is not called a cold box or passive container but a mini refrigerator. The refrigeration system comprising of refrigerant compressor, condenser, evaporator and expansion valve plus the refrigerant gas will add significantly to the weight of the cold box and its maintenance will be another problem as it will be exposed to extreme and rough conditions. If you still want to use a cold box, my suggestion is to extend the cold or cool life of the cold box/vaccine carrier by equipping it with a very effective light weight insulating material.

Alejo

  1. more than a month ago
  2. Cold chain equipment
  3. # 4
Pierre de Vasson Accepted Answer

Hi John, Pat, Imran and others,

Thanks for your input.

My point was to break the traditional silo thinking betweencold chain, local storingin fridges and distribution/logistics & fleetin a technical way.

Vaccine supply chain (and certainly health supply chain in general) will be more resilient, efficient, effective, and sustainable if the cold chain strategy is holistic (not only @ service delivery point with fridges), reinforce flexibility of connected steps in the supply chain (in refrigerated distribution/logistics, refrigerated storing orrefrigerated equipment for outreach), introduce new technology with reasonnable investment, etc. Or at least this is how we can see modern supply chain moving beyond classic thinking and provide additional value.

These active containers can be plugged on a normal electric outlet (if available) when the car does not run (at night). Alternatively, the car engine can be kept running. In ice cream or meat industries, these arrangments have been proved successful, especially for cross docking and night stops.

Given the extreem price of a refrigerated truck, I believe this is a doable, flexible solution.

Best regards,

Pierre

John Lloydreplied to the discussion[#3950] Car battery operated cold boxes



2016/02/19 09:25am

John LloydHi Pierre!
The main advantage of active refrigeration v. passive cold box is the vaccine capacity v. external volume of the container…ie you can transport much more vaccine in the space available in a vehicle. Maybe you could also argue that the duration of the trip could be longer than 5 days (limit of passive container). But which campaigns last more than a week?.
But one needs to consider the potential issues also:
running from the vehicle battery can/will drain it below starting needsrunning an ancillary battery challenges the alternator (shorter life)transporting active refrigerators causes them to fail if the road is rough and they are not bolted to the bodythe condenser needs free ventilation: the back of a vehicle is frequently heavily loaded (a problem particularly with skin condenser)
These points are from experience, but ‘old’ experience!!! So this not meant to discourage, just things to check! Main one is «Do you really need it?!»
Best wishes,
John

Pat Lennonreplied to the discussionCar battery operated cold boxes



2016/02/18 18:42pm

Pat Lennon

Hi Imran - Two questions that will help inform technology selection and specfication. How long do you need to keep vaccines cold and/or water packs frozen for these extended outreach sessions you are thikning of? What is the volume of vaccine and/or water packs one would need to carry for these sessions?

Hi Pierre - I don't have much experience with the devices you describe so I'll just throw out some thoughts that might be helpful. I looked at the information on the web site you linked and I would want to have a better understanding of holdover. For a long trip the standard unmodified vehicle would likely not be running 24hours a day - so when the vehicle is not running and therefore not charging it's own battery or providing power to the cold box active cooling technologyit would be good to know how long the device can keep contents at the appropriate temperature. If the device requires power to maintain temperatures overnight (for example) one would need to determine power draw so as not to inadvertently drain the car batteryleaving the team stranded and/or vaccines too hot. If the device could maintain temperatures for an extended period (at least overnight?) without needing to draw power from the vehicle (internal battery and/or sufficient insulation) AND could recharge itself within the typical car engine run-time for the outreach tripit could be a feasible technology to test out.

My understanding/experience is standard car batteries will not hold up to repeated draining- a deep-cycle battery would need to be included if the technology was relying on the vehicle to provide power when the vehicle's engine wasn't running for extended periods.

  1. more than a month ago
  2. Cold chain equipment
  3. # 5
Imran Mirza Accepted Answer

Thanks John, Pat and Pierre,

I am thinking something as described by Pierre. This type of cold box may be helpful for outreach services (mobile services) for longer duration, as well as during campaigns. In both events vaccinators normally have vehicles to move around. Even places where there is no electricity, cold chain equipment is run on generators for max 8 hours a day, in same way these cold boxes can be run on vehicle duirng day time (while vehicle engine is running) and maintain temperature during night time (when there is no need to open the box).

Question will remain as raised by Pat, "if the device could maintain temperatures for an extended period (at least overnight?) without needing to draw power from the vehicle?".

If such kind of cold boxes are available, will these be helpful in areas where mobile outreach services face cold chain issues?

thanks

Imran

  1. more than a month ago
  2. Cold chain equipment
  3. # 6
  4. View last reply:
Soren Spanner Accepted Answer

Hello,

Back in 1985, while is was working in Kenya (KEPI) I equipped two Land-rovers with a battery powered refrigerator. Here is how I did.

  • One RCW 42DC. 12V (models have changed now)
  • Fitted one additional 12V battery approx. 100 Ah
  • Made the electrical connections (plug&play)
  • Delivered vaccines in North East (hot zone) Kenya
  • Simple:)

Best regards
Soren

  1. more than a month ago
  2. Cold chain equipment
  3. # 7
Pat Lennon Accepted Answer

Hi Imran - Two questions that will help inform technology selection and specfication. How long do you need to keep vaccines cold and/or water packs frozen for these extended outreach sessions you are thikning of? What is the volume of vaccine and/or water packs one would need to carry for these sessions?

Hi Pierre - I don't have much experience with the devices you describe so I'll just throw out some thoughts that might be helpful. I looked at the information on the web site you linked and I would want to have a better understanding of holdover. For a long trip the standard unmodified vehicle would likely not be running 24hours a day - so when the vehicle is not running and therefore not charging it's own battery or providing power to the cold box active cooling technologyit would be good to know how long the device can keep contents at the appropriate temperature. If the device requires power to maintain temperatures overnight (for example) one would need to determine power draw so as not to inadvertently drain the car batteryleaving the team stranded and/or vaccines too hot. If the device could maintain temperatures for an extended period (at least overnight?) without needing to draw power from the vehicle (internal battery and/or sufficient insulation) AND could recharge itself within the typical car engine run-time for the outreach tripit could be a feasible technology to test out.

My understanding/experience is standard car batteries will not hold up to repeated draining- a deep-cycle battery would need to be included if the technology was relying on the vehicle to provide power when the vehicle's engine wasn't running for extended periods.

  1. more than a month ago
  2. Cold chain equipment
  3. # 8
Pierre de Vasson Accepted Answer

Hi John, Imran and the community,

Just wondering whether you have a say in the following idea : installation of a rather large portable fridge/freezer on the trunk of a covered pick-up car.

An exemple would behttp://www.dometic.com/USA/MS-11346-Marine/PG-11355-Refrigeration/PG-11382-Portable-Coolers-Freezers, the larger one of 3.71 cu. ft.

  • It can be plugged into the electric AC/DC or DC system of the car during transportation, the refrigerated/frozen items are under control.
  • It can be unloaded from the trunk with a trolley and be battery operated for a couple of hourse during mass immunization campaign.
  • It transforms a non-refrigerated vehicule into a refrigerated/freezing one and therefore add versatility to a fleet of non-refrigerated vehicules.
  • It does not require a huge investment in comparision with a fully refrigerated truck (which does not make possible to transport frozen products, except with additional cold chain packaging).
  • It does not require cold chain packaging.

Let me know your thoughts, please.

Pierre de Vasson, MSc, MBA

Feytiat Consulting - Support in Supply Chain forHeath SystemStrengthening

Vancouver, CanadaPacific Standard Time
International cell phone : +1 604 5619 333

E-mail:feytiat@hotmail.com, skype :feytiat
  1. more than a month ago
  2. Cold chain equipment
  3. # 9
  4. View last reply:
John Lloyd Accepted Answer
Hi Imran!
Good thinking!
In no particular order, I have the following comments that I hope will be helpful:
car batteries are heavy, impractical to carry and they have a poor relationship of weight v. energy stored. Li-ion batteries should be better?batteries may need charging; if they are to be charged by the car, you may need an ancillary alternator, a separate battery - not the car one! This needs to be professionally installed with protected cabling from the engine to the rear of the carif you are thinking of active cooling, you are assuming compression or thermo-electric (Peltier) systems? If yes, they will need to be kept well ventillated, not hemmed in by the luggage load! In the Sahara, this requires forced ventilation drawing from a rear wheel arch and aimed at the condenser.consider absorption and adsorption cooling as alternative active coolers to compression/thermoelectric?its very hot in the car and very hot in the sun so you might need to assume ambient testing at +43C, not just +32C?
Best wishes,
John
  1. more than a month ago
  2. Cold chain equipment
  3. # 10


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