TechNet-21 - Forum

This forum provides a place for members to ask questions, share experiences, coordinate activities, and discuss recent developments in immunization.

Discussions tagged VVM

Call for examples of country materials on VVM

Dear colleagues,

I am working on a new book project on VVM.

I would like to include examples of the following and shall be grateful if you could kindly contact me. Your help is much appreciated!

If you have any of the following, besides sending the material, I'd appreciate it if you could kindly explain and give a short background on the material you are sending (especially for photographs - where it was taken, when it was taken, what is the event, and who is the photo...

Type of VVM assigned to vaccines

Dear all, 

Can any one explain how the decision is made as to which type of VVM is assigned to different vaccines, with examples? Are same vaccines manufactured by different manufactures assigned different type of VVM?





Imagine that VVM’s do not exist. As an alternative a tiny electronic device could be developed which would record the temperature history of the vaccine vial. The device would be attached to the vial and graphically display the temperature history of the vaccine. If a health worker wanted to know how the temperature history of the vaccine would affect its life, how would they do it? This is essentially the same problem faced when trying to interpret the data obtained from a refrigerator or va...

Should we be confidently proud of the global improvements on immunization coverages? What can we do better to improve temperature monitoring in vaccine cold chain and ensure potent vaccines are usually used to vaccinate our clients?

Most of the countries now have improved immunization coverages and reach more children with vaccination, but we still need to monitor the potency of vaccines that are given on top of the high coverages we have achieved in many countries.

One of the biggest challenges when we talk about vaccine potency is the storage condition and to be more specific “the storage temperature”. Most of the vaccines are either heat or freeze sensitive and we need to monitor the storage temperatures more...

True cases occurring in tertiary care centre’s - generating hidden immunization gap

Dear viewers

 All of us are witnessing rapid multidimensional growth of routine immunization in the current decade. Keeping pace with the rapidly expanding / frequently changing schedule itself is a challenge faced by the service providers, more so in the private sector.

Pilot study revealed dangerously poor operational knowledge among the Medicos who are the current and would-be programme managers at various levels. This is conspicuously accentuated by the absence of an unifo...

Close vial wastage at lowest distribution and service delivery levels

Dear Colleagues,

I trust this post finds you all very well!

I would be grateful if you could please provide (based on your experiences), the possible sources (misuse, VVM, expiry, breakage, etc.) and rate of occurrence of close vial vaccine wastage at the lowest distribution and service delivery levels?

Thank you in advance,



“CROWD TESTING” An Easily Implemented Method of Ice Pack Conditioning

Vaccines can tolerate temperatures above 8 deg C however temperatures below 0 deg C will freeze a vaccine and it will lose it’s efficacy. At temperatures above 8 deg C the life of a vaccine will be lowered but the exposure will not be catastrophic. For the most sensitive vaccine, VVM II, the life of the vaccine will decrease from 104 days to 99 days when exposed to 20 deg C conditions for one day. For a VVM7 vaccine exposed to the same one day temperature excursion the life of the vaccine wil...

VVM colour change as a continuous progression

WHO has just released a new infographic that summarises how health workers can use vaccine vial monitors (VVMs) to decide whether or not to use a vaccine vial. Most notably, it presents VVM colour change as a continuous progression, rather than as four distinct stages.

A VVM is a chemical indicator label attached to the vaccine container (vial, ampoule or dropper) by the vaccine manufacturer. As the container moves through the supply chain, the VVM records its cumulat...

Differential conversion of Vaccine Vial Monitor - VVM

Dear viewers

In one of the Training of Trainers programme in 1990’s at Chennai, a resource person told that ‘ASA’ – Attention, Suspicion and Authority are the 3 important elements of any good surveillance.

Through high sensitivity, observational capacity, timely reporting often rare syndromes were discovered; new clinical signs innovated in the past. Lay reporting, rumor reporting, reporting any unusual events by the regular reporting centres were encouraged for adequate surve...

VVM’s and MKT Thermometers

Below are some examples of how an MKT thermometer could be used to to simpllfy temperature data analysis for the cold chain.

If the temperature in a refrigerator is 4 deg C for 20 hours then increases to 15 deg C for 4 hours, how will the vaccine life be affected?

- If this is a one day occurrence – should an alarm be set off to notify a repair person?

- If this temperature variation occurs everyday for a month – will it be problematic?

- If on a 24 day excursi...


Hi all,

I am quite new to the CTC adventure.

After reading the second draft of the WHO CTC guideline, now ECTC (I also wen through the first version and the discussion in Langen and Ottawa), several questions came to my mind, and I would be extremely grateful if some of the forum members can help me out with them

1- Now that the rigid time& temperature conditions of the CTC are only one of the extended temperature conditions eligible for re-labelling, can we assume tha...

Buffered Temperature Chain

How about a Buffered Temperature Chain (BTC)? Vaccines which are highly thermally stable can be distributed in the Controlled Temperature Chain (CTC). To be incorporated into the CTC the vaccines must be stable enough to be stored for 3 days at 40 deg C. There are very few vaccines which are this stable. If vaccines can be incorporated into the CTC there are numerous logistical and financial advantages. Since the infrastructure is much simpler and less expensive. Establishing a “Buffered Temp...

VVM Checking Policy

Can any one help me that is there any VVM checking policy/guideline available with WHO in between receiving and dispatching of vaccines....

VVM & MKT Equivalent and Complementary Concepts

VVM’s and MKT are equivalent methods of measuring the effect of temperature variations on vaccines. VVM’s & MKT measurements can be used in a complimentary manner, the VVM’s give information on the life of individual vaccine vials. MKT measurements can be used to effectively measure the performance of equipment and the effect of short temperature excursions. The MKT is defined as “A single derived temperature that, if maintained over a defined period of time, afford the same thermal chal...

INFORMATION NOTE: Vaccine vial monitor (VVM) assignments for different WHO-prequalified vaccines

WHO and UNICEF have jointly prepared an information bulletin which addresses varied implications of different types of vaccine vial monitors (VVMs), notably VVM category type 7 (VVM7) and VVM category type 14 (VVM14), on vaccines such as the Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) and the fully-liquid Diphtheria-Tetanus- whole cell Pertussis-Hepatitis B-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTP-HepB-Hib, commonly referred to as pentavalent). The note is directed to countries that are currently supplied by U...

WHO/EPELA releases new videos on VVM

Many thanks to Umit Kartoglu for sharing these videos with the TechNet-21 forum! WHO/EPELA releases the most recently produced expert videos on VVM-based vaccine management. These videos are specifically produced for the new EPELA authentic e-learning course on vaccine vial monitor-based vaccine management. The new course will be offered for the first time from 27 January to 28 March 2014. If you are interested in the other courses in 2014, please visit [url=

Vaccine Vial Monitors (VVM)

Project Optimize is seeking real-life stories of how vaccine vial monitors are making an impact in the field. If you would like to share your story, please reply to this forum post. Dont hesitate to also post photographs if you have some Thanks in advance Michel Zaffran...
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