Triangulation for improved decision-making in immunization programmes

Curated by: Angela Montesanti Porter

Triangulation is the synthesis of two or more existing data sources to address relevant questions for programme planning and decision-making. Triangulation can include assembling the data together in one graph or stitching information from several graphs together with a narrative thread. Triangulation requires critical thinking and some basic analysis skills, but the activity goes beyond making graphs — it's about turning data into reliable information for action.

Even in the absence of perfect data, public health practice has long accepted that combining many pieces of weaker evidence through triangulation can form a strong basis for more informed decision-making. Through the use of multiple data sources, the triangulation process identifies and addresses the limitations of any one data source and/or data collection methodology. A more complete view of the programme issue can be obtained by making sense of different information, as well as the broader context.

This guidance provides a systematic approach to using triangulation for programme improvement at the national and subnational levels. For both levels, there are separate documents for general triangulation guidance and annexes that provide specific triangulation guidance for key topics: immunity gaps; programme performance; and programme targets (denominators).

Outline guidance web

The target audience for the national guidance documents are immunization and VPD surveillance programme staff at the national, regional or provincial levels. The subnational guidance documents have been developed to orient staff to triangulation for key programme questions at the district or health facility levels. These guides may also be useful for non-governmental organizations providing programmatic and technical assistance to national immunization and/or VPD surveillance programmes.

Triangulation is relevant for most contexts and a variety of different applications. To achieve success in triangulation (i.e., conducting analysis, incorporating into tools and processes, and building capacity) requires adaptation to local context. Materials to support capacity building are also available below. Feedback on the triangulation guidance is welcome and can be addressed to: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. You can also start a discussion or comment on the TechNet-21 forum.


Triangulation guidance (English) 

This collection contains guidance documents in English describing how to use data triangulation for programme improvement at the national and sub-national levels.


Triangulation guidance (French/français) 

This collection contains guidance documents in French describing how to use data triangulation for programme improvement at the national and sub-national levels.


Triangulation training resources

This collection contains recorded webinars and presentation slides that can be used for training on data triangulation.


Other relevant documents related to triangulation

This collection contains other relevant documents related to triangulation, data use, data visualization and communication.