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World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF
The document summarises progress and challenges with achieving universal immunisation coverage in 2021.
Edson Utazi, Dan Hogan
Communities at risk of non- and under-vaccination are often characterized by poverty, lack of access to health care and other basic services, civil/political unrest, poor sanitation practices,...
Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS)
Le Programme pour la vaccination à l’horizon2030 établit une vision et une stratégie mondiales ambitieuses pour les vaccins et la vaccination durant la décennie 20212030. Il s’appuie sur les...
Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance
Gavi Alliance video introduction to VVM innovation. A vaccine vial monitor (VVM) is a smart label. Triggered by a temperature rise above a certain threshold, it changes colour if the vial has been...
World Health Organization (WHO)
The WHO initiative, Market Information for Access to Vaccines (MI4A) produces vaccine-specific market studies, analyzing global demand and supply prospects for individual vaccines. The studies...
World Health Organization (WHO)
WHO working document on Diphtheria & Tetanus Containing Vaccines Global Market Study
PATH
This document provides a literature review of articles about the effects of freezing on vaccine potency of hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccines. Also included is a review...
Vaccinate Your Family
The Next Generation of Every Child By Two, has prepared this second annual State of the ImmUnion report to examine how strong our defenses truly are against vaccine-preventable diseases and what we...
Honggang Xue et al.
Inadvertent vaccine freezing often occurs in the cold chain and may cause damage to freeze‑sensitive vaccines. Liquid vaccines that contain aluminum salt adjuvants are particularly vulnerable....
Joseline Guetsop Zafack et al.
For vaccines to be fully effective and induce long-term protective immunity, individuals should receive all recommended doses. Vaccine recipients who experienced an adverse event following...
Wendy Prosser et al.
Introduction: Evidence suggests that immunization supply chains are becoming outdated and unable to deliver needed vaccines due to growing populations and new vaccine introductions. Redesigning a...
Patrick Lydon et al.
As countries rise to the challenge of implementing the priorities of this “Decade of Vaccine” and their commitments delineated in the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP), many continue to face...
Roger Baxter et al.
BACKGROUND: Vaccination against pertussis during pregnancy is recommended to protect newborns, yet there is limited information about the effectiveness of maternal tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria...
Kriss JL et al.
BACKGROUND: Vaccination coverage with tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine in pregnancy or immediately postpartum has been low. Limited data exist on...
Noam H Arzt
This article focuses on the requirements and current developments in clinical decision support technologies for immunizations (CDSi) in both the public health and clinical communities, with an...
Rebecca M. Casey et al.
In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Expanded Program on Immunization* to provide protection against six vaccine-preventable diseases through routine infant immunization (1)....
María Clara Restrepo-Méndez et al.
Despite the improvements made in global immunization coverage for children over the past decade,1,2 an estimated 21.8 million infants worldwide are still not being reached by routine immunization...
George Gotsadze et al.
The costs and financing of the national immunization programs have been evaluated since 1980s, particularly as part of Universal Childhood Immunization Initiative. However, available information is...
Carl Schütte et al.
Zambia had a population of just over 13 million in 2010 of which 60.5% lived in rural areas. The total fertility rate is high at 5.9 per woman and higher in rural areas. Zambia is classified as a...
Keith Pardee et al.
Here, we present a series of vignettes describing the production of a diverse set of therapeutics and molecular tools for clinical and research environments using freeze-dried, cell-free (FD-CF)...
World Health Organization (WHO)
The 1999 Technet consultative meeting was held in Harare, Zimbabwe, from 6 to 10 December 1999. Approximately 80 participants attended, representing global organizations, nongovernmental...
Shrivastwa N et al.
INTRODUCTION: India has one of the lowest immunization rates worldwide despite a longstanding Universal Immunization Program (UIP) that provides free childhood vaccines. This study characterizes the...
Erika Hammarlund et al.
Background. Many adult immunization schedules recommend that tetanus and diphtheria vaccination be performed every 10 years. In light of current epidemiological trends of disease incidence and...
Beenish Hanif, Anita K. M. Zaidi, Amna R. Siddiqui, Ajmal Agha, Aatekah Owais
Background In Pakistan, only 59-73% of children 12-23 months of age are fully immunized. This randomized, controlled trial was conducted to assess the impact of a low-literacy immunization promotion...
Frank Shann
There is now clear evidence that the simplistic conventional model of immunization is invalid [1]. We can no longer assume that a vaccine acts independently of other vaccines, or that it influences...
Helen E Quinn and Peter B McIntyre
To compare the impact of three strategies for delivering a booster dose of adult-formulated tetanus–diphtheria–pertussis (Tdap) vaccine to adolescents in Australia. These comprise: (i)...
Bruce Y. Lee et al.
Single-dose vaccine formats can prevent clinic-level vaccine wastage but may incur higher production, medical waste disposal, and storage costs than multi-dose formats. To help guide vaccine...
Anthony Burton, Rouslan Karimov, Maryanne Neill, Marta Gacic-Dobo, Barbara Lautenbach, Roeland Monasch, Lara Wolfson, Gareth Jones, Maureen Birmingham
WHO recommends that all children receive one dose of bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG), three doses of diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis vaccine (DTP), three doses of either oral polio vaccine...
Seth Berkley
Immunisation is now widely recognised as one of the most efficient, successful, and cost-effective health investments in history, but despite a substantial effort over the past 50 years, nearly one...
Health Canada
The purpose of this paper is to present results of tests conducted to determine the \"warm life\" of a well known vaccine carrier, witand without simple modifications. The information presented in...
Patrick Lydon et al.
On the eve of the 40th anniversary of launching of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1974, during the twenty-seventh World Health Assembly (WHA), fundamental questions about the level...
Sharma et al.
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine has been available in India\'s private sector market since 1997. It was not until 14 December 2011 that the Government of India initiated the phased public...
Payne S et al.
Immunization is a vital component in the drive to decrease global childhood mortality, yet challenges remain in ensuring wide coverage of immunization and full immunization, particularly in low- and...
Shingai Machingaidze et al.
Virtually all low- and middle-income countries are dependent on the World Health Organization’s Expanded Program on Immunization for delivery of vaccines to children. The Expanded Program on...
Besa NC et al.
A diphtheria outbreak occurred from February to November 2011 in the village of Kimba and its surrounding settlements, in Borno State, northeastern Nigeria. We conducted a retrospective outbreak...
Ane B. Fisker, Linda Hornshøj, Amabelia Rodrigues, Ibraima Balde, Manuel Fernandes, Christine S. Benn, Peter Aaby
In 2008, the GAVI Alliance funded the introduction of new vaccines (including pentavalent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis [DTP] plus hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens) in...
Shrivastwa N et al.
BACKGROUND: India has the highest number of deaths among children younger than 5 years of age globally; the majority are from vaccine preventable diseases. Untimely vaccination unnecessarily...
Matthias DM, Robertson J, Garrison MM, Newland S, Nelson C
The dangers of accidental freezing of vaccines in the cold chain have prompted studies throughout the globe to better characterize the risk. To date, there has been no systematic review of these...
Paul L. Delamater et al.
Childhood vaccination data are made available at a school level in some U.S. states. These data can be geocoded and may be considered as having a high spatial resolution. However, a school only...
Beverley Shea, Neil Andersson , David Henry
The researchers performed a systematic review of studies that provided quantitative estimates of the impact of demand side interventions on uptake of routine childhood vaccination. They retrieved...
World Health Organization (WHO)
PPT summarising WHO informal consultation to develop further guidance on vaccines for the UNEP-convened Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee Meeting 4 (INC4)
Ligia C. F. Gryninger, Eder G. Fernandes, Patrícia C. de Soárez, Ana M. C. Sartori, Juliana Y. K. Viscondi, Hillegonda M. D. Novaes
Pertussis incidence has increased significantly in Brazil since 2011, despite high coverage of whole-cell pertussis containing vaccines in childhood. Infants <4 months are most affected. This study...
A.M. Alguacil-Ramos, J.A. Lluch-Rodrigo, E. Pastor-Villalba, J. Diez-Domingo, A. Portero-Alonso, T.M. Garrigues-Pelufo, J. Muelas-Tirado
The surveillance of vaccine safety is an essential requirement in vaccination programmes. Computerized immunization registries such as the Vaccination Information System (SIV) of Valencian Community...
Weerawan Hattasingh et al.
The 1st Workshop on National Immunization Programs and Vaccine Coverage in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Countries Group (WNIPVC-ASEAN) held a meeting on April 30, 2015, Pattaya,...
Alassane Dicko, Ousmane B Toure, Issaka Sagara, Mariam Traore, Sidy O Toure, Mahamadou S Sissoko, Alpha T Diallo, Christophe Rogier, Roger Salomon, Alexandra de Sousa, Ogobara K Doumbo
This study shows that high coverage of the IPTi can be obtained when the strategy is implemented using routine health services and implementation resulted in a significant increase in coverage of EPI...
Jason M. Glanz et al.
Of the 72 case patients with pertussis, 12 (16.67%) were hospitalized, and 34 (47.22%) were undervaccinated for DTaP vaccine by the date of pertussis diagnosis. Of the 288 matched controls, 64...
Studies from low-income countries indicate that co-administration of inactivated diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis (DTP) vaccine and live attenuated measles vaccine (MV) is associated with increased...
E. Usuf et al.
The Gambia introduced seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in August 2009 and switched to 13-valent PCV in April 2011. In April 2009, monovalent hepatitis B and combined...
Mônica P. L. Cunha et al.
Despite good safety records, vaccines given to young children can cause adverse events. We investigated the reported adverse events following immunization (AEFI) of vaccines given to children of less...
Mvundura M et al.
Few studies document the costs of operating vaccine supply chains, but decision-makers need this information to inform cost projections for investments to accommodate new vaccine introduction. This...
Itamar Megiddo et al.
The researchers estimate regional and subpopulation effects of introducing a rotavirus vaccine. They also estimate the effects of increasing rotavirus, measles and DPT3 immunization.They conclude...
Koepke R et al.
The researchers estimated the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) for preventing pertussis among adolescents during a statewide outbreak of pertussis...
Ane B. Fisker, Carlito Bale, Amabelia Rodrigues, Ibraima Balde, Manuel Fernandes, Mathias J. Jørgensen, Niels Danneskiold-Samsøe, Linda Hornshøj, Julie Rasmussen, Emil D. Christensen, Bo M. Bibby, Peter Aaby, Christine S. Benn
The World Health Organization recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at routine vaccination contacts after 6 months of age based on the assumption that it reduces mortality by 24%. The policy has...
Nicola P. Klein et al.
The researchers compared 277 children, 4 to 12 years of age, who were PCR-positive for pertussis with 3318 PCR-negative controls and 6086 matched controls. PCR-positive children were more likely to...
Anne LaFond, Natasha Kanagat, Robert Steinglass, Rebecca Fields, Jenny Sequeira, Sangeeta Mookherji
There is limited understanding of why routine immunization (RI) coverage improves in some settings in Africa and not in others. Using a grounded theory approach, we conducted in-depth case studies to...
Pina Bozzo et al.
Exposure to either live or inactive vaccines during pregnancy has not been associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, and no child to date has been born with CRS or varicella...
Nicola P. Klein et al.
Routine Tdap did not prevent pertussis outbreaks. Among adolescents who have only received DTaP vaccines in childhood, Tdap provided moderate protection against pertussis during the first year and...
Zheteyeva Y A et al.
The report concludes that during a time when Tdap was not routinely recommended in pregnancy, review of reports to VAERS in pregnant women after Tdap did not identify any concerning patterns in...
Wallace et al.
Timely administration of hepatitis B vaccine beginning at birth prevents up to 95 per cent of perinatally acquired hepatitis B virus infections in infants of infected mothers. The Philippines changed...
Surkan et al.
Our study objective was to examine how maternal social support and depressive symptoms are associated with time to completion of childhood vaccinations. We used cross-sectional data from 582...
Juliet N. Babirye et al.
Child survival is dependent on several factors including high vaccination coverage. Timely receipt of vaccines ensures optimal immune response to the vaccines. Yet timeliness is not usually...
Debra D. Kristensen et al.
This study captures the perspectives of stakeholders at multiple levels of the vaccine supply chain regarding their assessment of challenges with storing vaccines within recommended temperature...
Jeanette J. Rainey et al.
Since 1977, vaccinations to protect against tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and measles (and rubella since 2009) have been offered to children in Haiti through the routine...
Nicoletta Gossger et al.
The study seeks to determine the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a multicomponent MenB vaccine (4CMenB) and routine infant vaccines when given either concomitantly or separately.
Chadambuka A et al.
Gokwe South, a rural district in Midlands Province, Zimbabwe, reported the lowest rate of immunisation coverage in the country in 2005: 55 per cent of children vaccinated with three doses of...
Tami H. Skoff et al.
The study sought to evaluate the impact of the adolescent Tdap (tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine) vaccination program on pertussis trends in the United...
Robert Steinglass, Fussum Daniel, Asnakew Tsega
Immunization programs monitor 3rd dose of DPT-containing vaccine coverage as a principal indicator; however, this does not inform about coverage with other vaccines. A mini-survey was conducted to...
Katie L. Flanagan, Guest Editor
The WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization recently published their conclusions from a systematic review of the ‘non-specific’ or ‘heterologous effects’ of vaccines,...
Manas K. Akmatov et al.
The researchers examined (a) the fraction of and extent to which vaccinations were administered earlier than recommended (age-invalid) or with too short intervals between vaccine doses...
Indu B. Ahluwalia et al.
In June 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunizations Practices (ACIP) recommended 1 dose of a tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy for women who had not...
Bazos DA et al.
Although global efforts to support routine immunization (RI) system strengthening have resulted in higher immunization rates, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the proportion of...
Silvestri R & Marchetti
Antigens contained in vaccines are inherently unstable biologically; such a characteristic is conferred by their three-dimensional structure. Preserving the ability of the vaccines to protect against...
Elias Legesse & Worku Dechasa
Immunization remains one of the most important public health interventions and cost effective strategies to reduce child mortality and morbidity associated with infectious diseases. It is estimated...
Hussam Ammar et al.
The author\'s report that to the best of their knowledge, this is the first case of Guillain-Barre syndrome to be reported in the English literature after administration of tetanus toxoid, reduced...
R.M. Carlsson et al.
Prior study children from a DTaP efficacy trial were recruited at ages 5 and 15 years to randomized booster trials addressing immunogenicity and reactogenicity; 475 preschool children received mixed...
Quinn P et al.
The aim of this study was to compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a lower dose diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine (dTpa) with the recommended vaccine (DTPa) given as a fifth dose...
Lisa A. Jackson et al.
Local reactions to the fifth dose of the DTaP vaccine that require medical evaluation are uncommon, but the risk of those reactions is significantly higher when the vaccine is injected in the arm....
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Despite sustained high coverage for childhood pertussis vaccination, pertussis remains poorly controlled in the United States. A total of 16,858 pertussis cases and 12 infant deaths were reported in...
Weber DJ et al.
Tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) vaccine is recommended for all healthcare personnel who provide direct patient care unless medically contraindicated. Our university hospital made employment...
Aharona Glatman-Freedman, Victor G. Rodwin, Kevin Steffens, Ivy Rayos Saludes, Robert F. Porges, Katherine A. Nichols, Mary-Louise Cohen, David W. Britt
A major effort to introduce new vaccines into poor nations of the world was initiated in recent years with the help of the GAVI alliance. The first vaccines introduced have been the Haemophilus...
Stein-Zamir C et al.
The mean national immunization coverage at age two years (2007 data) was: DTaP-IPV-Hib4 (all 95%), HBV3 (99%), MMR1 (97%), HAV1 (93%). These reports are based on a 17% population-based sample in some...
Shawn T. Brown et al.
New vaccine introductions have put a strain on vaccine supply chains around the world. While increasing storage and transportation may be the most straightforward options, it is also important to...
Jane Crawley et al.
Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during infancy (IPTi) is the administration of a full therapeutic course of antimalarial drugs to infants living in settings where malaria is endemic, at...
Sharma HJ et al.
Hib vaccine can be easily incorporated in EPI vaccination schedule as the immunization schedule of Hib is similar to that of DTP vaccine. To meet the global demand of Hib vaccine, SIIL scaled up the...
Helen Reesemail and Shabir A Madhi
In 2011, the story of immunisation coverage worldwide hovers between the glass half empty and the glass half full. Anticipated advances in vaccinology during this new Decade of Vaccines will only...
A. Schweitzer, F. Pessler, G. Krause, M. K. Akmatov
Timing of childhood vaccinations has received close attention in many countries. Little is known about the trends in correctly timed vaccination in former Soviet countries. The researchers examined...
Elise Guillermet, Hamadou M. Dicko et al.
Prefilled syringes are the standard in developed countries but logistic and financial barriers prevent their widespread use in developing countries. The current study evaluated use of a compact,...
Gold- Michael, Dugdale- Sarah, Woodman- Richard J & McCaul- Kieran A
We linked the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR) to South Australian (SA) hospital outcome data in order to evaluate the association between Measles Mumps and Rubella (MMR) and...
Lim- Stephen S, Stein- David B, Charrow- Alexandra & Murray- Christopher J L
BACKGROUND: Substantial resources have been invested in increasing childhood immunisation coverage through global initiatives such as the Universal Childhood Immunisation (UCI) campaign and the...
Kashif Khan, Emmanuela Gakidou, Catherine M. Michaud, Chunling Lu, Christopher J. L. Murray
BACKGROUND: The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) was created in 1999 to enable even the poorest countries to provide vaccines to all children. We aimed to assess the effect of...