109 results
Chair Kathleen Neuzil
2:00 - Salmonella typhi, Sushant Sahastrabuddhe, IVI. 20:32 - Schistosomiasis, Robert Bergquist, Geospatial Health. 36:26 - HPV, Aimee Kreimer, NCI/NIH. 52:46 - Novel OPV, Ananda Bandyopadhyay,...
World Health Organization (WHO)
The Global Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (GCCPE/GCC) met in February 2018. It noted that although no WPV paralytic cases had been reported in Pakistan since November...
Umeh GC et al.
BACKGROUND: Attitude and subjective well-being are important factors in mothers accepting or rejecting Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) supplemental immunization. The purpose of the study was to determine...
Pedreira, Cristina et al.
This article synthesizes the important lessons learned from polio eradication in the Region of the Americas, including initial and more recent challenges and best practices, as well as particular...
Hafsa Imran et al.
Background: Within Pakistan, estimates of vaccination coverage with the pentavalent vaccine, oral polio vaccine (OPV) and measles vaccine (MV) in 2011 were reported to be 74%, 75% and 53%,...
Michel Zaffran et al.
The global effort to eradicate poliomyelitis has reduced the incidence of cases caused by wild poliovirus by more than 99% since its launch in 1988, from 350 000 annual cases in 125 endemic...
Gillian K SteelFisher et al.
Background: Eradication of poliovirus from endemic countries relies on vaccination of children with oral polio vaccine (OPV) many times a year until the age of 5 years. We aimed to determine...
David A. Muller et al.
To secure a polio-free world, the live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) will eventually need to be replaced with inactivated poliovirus vaccines (IPV). However, current IPV delivery is less...
Lee M. Hampton et al.
essential for creating a polio-free world, and eliminating that risk will require stopping use of all oral polio vaccines (OPVs) once all types of wild polioviruses have been eradicated. In many...
Kimberly M. Thompson et al.
Background: Comparing model expectations with the experience of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) containing serotype 2 (OPV2) cessation can inform risk management for the expected cessation of OPV...
Kimberly M. Thompson et al.
Background: Recent detections of circulating serotype 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus in northern Nigeria (Borno and Sokoto states) and Pakistan (Balochistan Province) and serotype 1 wild poliovirus in...
Margaret Farrell et al.
The phased withdrawal of oral polio vaccine (OPV) associated with the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 began with the synchronized global replacement of trivalent OPV (tOPV)...
Hiromasa Okayasu et al.
A fractional dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (fIPV) administered by the intradermal route delivers one fifth of the full vaccine dose administered by the intramuscular route and offers a...
Samantha B. Dolan et al.
Background: In 2013, the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) recommended that all 126 countries using only oral polio vaccine (OPV) introduce at least 1...
Iria Preza et al.
Background: Albania introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into its immunization system in May 2014, increasing the maximum recommended number of injectable vaccines given in a single visit from...
YuhongXiao & HenryDaniell
Oral polio vaccine (OPV) and Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) have distinct advantages and limitations. IPV does not provide mucosal immunity and introduction of IPV to mitigate consequences of...
Santosh Gurung et al.
The World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR) has maintained its polio-free status since 2000. The emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), however, remains a risk, as...
Sunil Bahl et al.
This analysis describes an innovative and successful approach to risk identification and mitigation in relation to the switch from trivalent to bivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) in the 11 countries...
Kamal Fahmy et al.
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative has reduced the global incidence of polio by 99% and the number of countries with endemic polio from 125 to 3 countries. The Polio Eradication and Endgame...
Cristina Pedreira et al.
The synchronized introduction of the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and the switch from trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV) has constituted an effort without...
Stephanie Shendale et al.
The global switch from trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV) (“the switch”) presented an unprecedented challenge to countries. In order to mitigate the risks...
Carol Tevi-Benissan et al.
The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic plan outlines the phased removal of oral polio vaccines (OPVs), starting with type 2 poliovirus–containing vaccine and introduction of inactivated polio...
Anne-Line Blankenhorn, Tania Cernuschi, Michel J. Zaffran
n May 2012, the World Health Assembly declared the completion of poliovirus eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health and called for a comprehensive polio endgame strategy. The...
Daniela Decina et al.
Withdrawal of type 2 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in OPV-using countries required regulatory approval for use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine and bivalent OPV in routine immunization. Worldwide, a...
Jennifer Rubin et al.
The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 calls for the phased withdrawal of OPV, beginning with the globally synchronized cessation of tOPV by mid 2016. From a global vaccine supply...
Lisa Menning et al.
The requirements under objective 2 of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013–2018—to introduce at least 1 dose of inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV); withdraw oral...
Simona Zipursky et al.
The Immunization Systems Management Group (IMG) was established as a time-limited entity, responsible for the management and coordination of Objective 2 of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic...
Simona Zipursky et al.
The Immunization Systems Management Group (IMG) was established to coordinate and oversee objective 2 of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013–2018, namely, (1) introduction of ≥1...
Nicoletta Previsani et al.
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) continues to make progress toward the eradication target. Only one of the three serotypes, wild poliovirus (WPV) type 1 (WPV1), is still circulating,...
Elizabeth B Brickley & Peter F Wright
With the globally coordinated switch from the trivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) to the bivalent OPV in April, 2016, the international public health community entered a new chapter in the endgame of...
Jorba
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis worldwide (1). One of the main tools used in polio eradication efforts has been the live, attenuated, oral poliovirus vaccine...
Koopman JS et al.
Waning immunity could allow transmission of polioviruses without causing poliomyelitis by promoting silent circulation (SC). Undetected SC when oral polio vaccine (OPV) use is stopped could cause...
Krishna P Paudel et al.
Introduction National immunization systems are important for reducing vaccine preventable diseases.1 However, in many resource-constrained countries, such systems need to be improved. This paper...
World Health Organization (WHO)
Strong progress continues to be made since the Health Assembly called for the worldwide eradication of poliomyelitis in 1988.1 At the time, poliomyelitis was endemic in more than 125 countries around...
Mona Marin et al.
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis (polio). Since then, wild poliovirus (WPV) cases have declined by >99.9%, from an estimated 350,000 cases of polio each year to...
Sunil Bahl et al.
During 2 September–4 October 2016, 4 sewage samples collected in Hyderabad in Telangana state between 3 August and 19 September 2016 and 1 sewage sample collected in Ahmedabad in Gujarat state on...
P. L. Lopalco
Polio cases due to wild virus are reported by only three countries in the world. Poliovirus type 2 has been globally eradicated and the last detection of poliovirus type 3 dates to November 2012....
National Emergency Operation Centre, Pakistan
In this National Emergency Action Plan (NEAP) for 2016 - 2017, the main objective is to stop transmission in the core reservoirs and maintain or increase population immunity against polio in the rest...
Peter F Wright et al.
Background Identification of mechanisms that limit poliovirus replication is crucial for informing decisions aimed at global polio eradication. Studies of mucosal immunity induced by oral poliovirus...
Abhishek Kunwar, Sunil Bahl, Mohammad Ahmad
Evidence generated through research studies has guided programmatic actions and fine-tuned strategies for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). However, many gaps still persist in the...
Haldar P & Agrawal P
Global Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-18 calls for the ultimate withdrawal of oral polio vaccines (OPV) from all immunization programs across the world. The phased globally...
Chukwuma Mbaey et al.
Only 74 cases of wild poliovirus (WPV) were reported globally in 2015, the lowest number of cases ever reported worldwide (1,2). All of the reported cases were WPV type 1 (WPV1), the only known WPV...
Margarita Pons-Salort et al.
In August 2015, we estimated vaccine-induced population immunity against serotype-2 poliomyelitis for 1 January 2004–30 June 2015 and produced forecasts for April 2016 by district in Nigeria and...
Mohammadreza Shaghaghi et al.
Widespread use of oral poliovirus vaccine has led to an ≈99.9% decrease in global incidence of poliomyelitis (from ≈350,000 cases in 1988 to 74 cases in 2015) and eradication of wild-type...
Nandi etal.
In March 2014, India, the country with historically the highest burden of polio, was declared polio free, with no reported cases since January 2011. We estimate the health and economic benefits of...
Pezzoli
Publication Abstract: We used the clustered lot quality assurance sampling (clustered-LQAS) technique to identify districts with low immunization coverage and guide mop-up actions during the last 4...
Lisa Rubin & Keren Landsman
The May 28, 2013 isolation of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in routine sewage samples signaled the beginning of the first protracted incident of WPV1 transmission in Israel since 1988. A door-to-door...
Charity Warigon et al.
Introduction. Poliomyelitis remains a global threat despite availability of oral polio vaccine (OPV), proven to reduce the burden of the paralyzing disease. In Nigeria, children continue to miss the...
dwin J Asturias et al.
Background Replacement of the trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) with bivalent types 1 and 3 oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV) and global introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) are...
Edward P K Parker & Nicholas C Grassly
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is on the brink of a major milestone. As of April, 2016, the serotype 2 component of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) will be removed from all immunisation...
Binyaminy B et al.
In August 2013, a nationwide vaccination campaign with bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV) was initiated after isolation of wild-type poliovirus type 1 (WPV-1) in routine sewage surveillance in...
Svea Closser et al.
Drawing on research conducted in early 2012, this study focuses on factors affecting parental acceptance of oral polio vaccine (OPV), and health worker motivation to deliver it, in SITE Town, an area...
Claudia Reinheimer et al.
Europe was certified to be polio-free in 2002 by the WHO. However, wild polioviruses remain endemic in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria, occasionally causing polio outbreaks, as in...
Bassey Enya Bassey et al.
The last case of wild polio virus transmission occurred in Akwa Ibom state in October 2001; however, combination high routine immunization coverage with OPV, high quality AFP surveillance, mass...
Jacob John et al.
Intestinal immunity induced by oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is imperfect and wanes with time, permitting transmission of infection by immunised children. Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) does...
Micaela Martinez-Bakker et al.
Sustained and coordinated vaccination efforts have brought polio eradication within reach. Anticipating the eradication of wild poliovirus (WPV) and the subsequent challenges in preventing its...
Kristoffer Jarlov Jensen et al.
Vaccines may have non-specific effects. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau suggested that oral polio vaccine at birth (OPV0) provided with Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine was...
G. Bencsko and T. Ferenci
Recent polio outbreaks in Syria and Ukraine, and isolation of poliovirus from asymptomatic carriers in Israel have raised concerns that polio might endanger Europe. We devised a model to calculate...
E Anis et al.
The last widespread circulation of wild poliovirus in Israel was 25 years ago, resulting in a national outbreak with cases of permanent paralytic polio [3]. The major difference between the 1988...
Mangal TD et al.
The \"endgame\" for worldwide poliomyelitis eradication will entail eventual cessation of the use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in all countries to prevent the reintroduction of vaccine-derived...
Hui-Ming Luo et al.
Between July 3 and October 9, 2011, investigators identified 21 cases of infection with wild-type poliovirus and 23 clinically compatible cases in southern Xinjiang. Wild-type poliovirus type 1 was...
Mohamed A Sheikh et al.
As part of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013–2018,†† which aims to discontinue all use of OPV after eradication of WPV, IPV is to be introduced by the end of 2015 into the...
R Bruce Aylward
On 27 March 2014, India and the entire WHO South East Asia Region were certified polio-free , bringing to 80% the proportion of the world’s population that now lives in regions entirely free of...
Michelle Morales et al.
In 2015, wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission was identified only in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The widespread use of live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has been crucial in polio eradication...
Kathleen M O\'Reilly et al.
The researchers conclude that the effectiveness of bivalent OPV is comparable with monovalent OPV and can therefore be used in eradicating serotype 1 poliomyelitis whilst minimising the risks of...
Olen Kew
Since its launch in 1988, the World Health Organization\'s Global Polio Eradication Initiative has reduced worldwide polio incidence by >99%. The most dramatic progress was achieved up to the year...
Michelle M. Hughes et al.
Immunization programs currently measure coverage by assessing the proportion of children 12–24 months who have been immunized but this does not address the important question of when the scheduled...
Jennifer G. Cooke & Farha Tahir
Since 1988, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI)—an international partnership of government and private institutions—has reduced the number of reported polio cases worldwide by more...
Concepción F Estívariz
The continued presence of polio in northern India poses challenges to the interruption of wild poliovirus transmission and the management of poliovirus risks in the post-eradication era. We aimed to...
John F Modlin
2012 will mark the 24th year of WHO\'s Global Poliomyelitis Eradication Initiative.1 Eradication has proven more difficult than originally envisioned because of geopolitical events, such as war,...
Anat Gesser-Edelsburg, Yaffa Shir-Raz, Manfred S. Green
This study examines vaccination hesitancy or refusal following the 2013 polio outbreak in Israel, based on two theoretical models. The first is Sandman’s theoretical model, which holds that risk...
Jean Guo et al.
Vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), strains of poliovirus mutated from the oral polio vaccine, pose a challenge to global polio eradication. Immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived polioviruses...
The fight against endemic polio transmission is restricted to three countries: Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria. In 2012, when the world saw the lowest numbers of cases from polio-reporting...
José E. Hagan et al.
In 1988, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to eradicate polio worldwide (1). Wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has been interrupted in all but three countries...
Zulfiqar A. Bhutta
Before the development of the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in 1955, poliomyelitis paralysed and killed up to half a million people every year. The introduction of the IPV in the USA led to a...
Julie R Garon & Walter A Orenstein
The world is now closer to global polio eradication than ever before. In 1988, when the World Health Assembly set its sights on complete eradication of polio, an estimated 350 000 paralytic cases...
Roland W Sutter et al.
Polio eradication needs a new routine immunisation schedule—three or four doses of bivalent type 1 and type 3 oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV) and one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV),...
Edna S Bar-On et al.
Meta-analysis was performed to pool the results of 18 studies. There were no data on clinical outcomes for the primary outcome and all studies used immunogenicity and reactogenicity (adverse events)....
Concepción F Estívariz et al.
The provision of several doses of monovalent type 1 oral poliovirus vaccine (mOPV1) and bivalent OPV1 and 3 (bOPV) vaccines through campaigns is essential to stop the circulation of remaining wild...
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Since the 1988 World Health Assembly resolution to eradicate poliomyelitis (polio), transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has been interrupted in all countries except Afghanistan, Nigeria, and...
Erliyani Sartono et al.
This study is the first to address the consequences for the immune response to BCG of simultaneous administration with OPV. Worryingly, the results indicate that the common practice in low-income...
Kidd S et al.
We conducted an investigation of two outbreaks of poliomyelitis in Angola during 2007-2008 due to wild poliovirus (WPV) genetically linked to India. A case-control study including 27 case-patients...
Gunjan Taneja et al.
Newborn Vaccination is identified as a critical parameter for evaluating the overall performance of immunization programs with guidelines clearly advocating for administration of BCG, OPV zero dose...
Simona Zipursky et al.
This study is the first systematic documentation of the potency of monovalent oral polio vaccine type 3 (mOPV3) kept at ambient temperatures during a polio immunization campaign in Chad. During the...
Even though we have already covered 99% of the path to eradicate poliomyelitis from the world, this disease is still causing paralysis in children. Its eradication means not only the end of wild...
Najaaraq Lund et al.
The researchers investigated the effect of OPV0 on infant mortality in a randomized trial in Guinea-Bissau. The study concludes that OPV0 may be associated with nonspecific protection against...
Andrew Etsano , Almai Some, Ogu Enemaku, Al-Umra Umar, Hyelni Mshelia , Richard Banda, Sule Meleh, Anna Chavez, John Vertefeuille, Gatei Wa Nganda, Frank Mahoney , Pascal Mkanda, Eunice Damisa, Melissa Corkum, Michael Galway, Ado Mohammed, Samuel Usman, Gerida Birukila, Faisal M Shuaibu
The use of Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) in routine immunization to replace Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) is crucial in eradicating polio. In June 2014, Nigeria launched an IPV campaign in the...
Kraan H et al.
In the near future oral polio vaccine (OPV) will be replaced by inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) as part of the eradication program of polio. For that reason, there is a need for substantial amount of...
Miguel O\'Ryan et al.
Bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV; types 1 and 3) is expected to replace trivalent OPV (tOPV) globally by April, 2016, preceded by the introduction of at least one dose of inactivated poliovirus...
SteelFisher GK et al.
Elimination of poliovirus from endemic countries is a crucial step in eradication; however, vaccination programmes in these areas face challenges, especially in regions with conflict. We analysed...
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
In 1988, the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) and, in 2012, declared the completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health...
Maduka Donatus Ughasoro et al.
Introduction of inactivated polio vaccine is imminent and may encounter the challenges that face new vaccines especially vaccine hesitancy. The study evaluated factors that may contribute to...
Radboud J et al.
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative plans for coordinated cessation of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) use, beginning with serotype 2-containing OPV (i.e., OPV2 cessation) followed by the remaining...
Roland W Sutter et al.
This study assesses the immunogenicity of a novel bivalent types 1 and 3 oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV).
Shohreh Shahmahmood et al.
To determine the prevalence of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) in immunodeficient infants, we reviewed all documented cases caused by immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived...
World Health Organization (WHO)
The oral polio vaccine (OPV) is an extremely safe and effective tool for immunizing children against polio. Over the past 10 years, more than 10 billion doses of OPV have been administered to over...
World Health Organization (WHO)
We are close to the eradication of polio, with a new global endgame plan leading the way to a polio-free world. In the last two decades, immunization efforts have reduced the number of polio cases...
World Health Organization (WHO)
Frequently Asked Questions on replacing trivalent OPV with bivalent OPV.
World Health Organization (WHO)
1. Rationale for OPV withdrawal. 2. Timelines for switching from tOPV to bOPV. 3. Programmatic implications of the switch