WHO EPI - core reference material

epi

This page provides a list of core reference material published by the WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) and has been organised into the following three sections. These documents, as well as additional immunization materials, can be found in the Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals (IVB) Document Centre

  

By antigen

 

BCG

Title Author Year Type Language
BCG vaccines: WHO position paper World Health Organization 2018 Journal article Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish

 

Cholera

Title Author Year Type Language
Cholera vaccines: WHO position paper World Health Organization 2017 Journal article English, French
Ending Cholera: A Global Roadmap to 2030 Global Task Force on Cholera Control 2017 Document English

 

Dengue 

Title Author Year Type Language
Dengue vaccine: WHO position paper – July 2016 World Health Organization 2016 Journal article Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish
Informing vaccination programs: a guide to the design and conduct of dengue serosurveys World Health Organization 2017 Document English

 

Diphteria

Title Author Year Type Language
Diphtheria vaccine: WHO position paper World Health Organization 2017 Journal article English, French, Russian

 

Hepatitis B  

Title Author Year Type Language
A guide for introducing and strengthening Hepatitis B birth dose vaccination Morgan et al. 2015 Document Arabic, English, French, Spanish
Documenting the impact of hepatitis B immunization: Best practices for conducting a serosurvey World Health Organization 2011 Document Arabic, English, French
Hepatitis B vaccines: WHO position paper - July 2017 World Health Organization 2017 Journal article English, French, Russian
Practices to improve coverage of the hepatitis B birth dose vaccine World Health Organization 2013 Document English
Sample design and procedures for Hepatitis B immunization surveys: A companion to the WHO cluster survey reference manual World Health Organization 2012 Document English

 

Hib

Title Author Year Type Language
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) Vaccination Position Paper World Health Organization 2013 Journal article English, French
Measuring impact of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influnzae type b conjugate vaccination World Health Organization 2012 Document English, French

 

HPV

Title Author Year Type Language
Guide to introducing HPV vaccine into national immunization programmes World Health Organization 2016 Document English, French, Portuguese
HPV Vaccine Communication: Special considerations for a unique vaccine Christine McNab, Tracey Goodman & Susan Wang 2016 Document English, French
HPV Vaccine Introduction Clearing House World Health Organization Website Not-specified
Human papillomavirus vaccines: WHO position paper, May 2017 World Health Organization 2017 Journal article English, French
PRIME cost effectiveness tool World Health Organization Website English
Scaling-up HPV vaccine introduction World Health Organization 2016 Document English, French
WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool (C4P) World Health Organization Website English, French, Portuguese, Spanish

 

Japanese encephalitis (JE) 

Title Author Year Type Language
Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines: WHO position paper, February 2015 - Recommendations World Health Organization 2015 Journal article English

 

Malaria vaccine

Title Author Year Type Language
First malaria vaccine in Africa: A potential new tool for child health and improved malaria control World Health Organization 2018 Document English
Malaria vaccine: WHO position paper (and summary of key points) – January 2016 World Health Organization 2016 Document English
Q&A on the Phase 3 trial results for malaria vaccine RTS,S/AS01 World Health Organization 2017 Website English
Q&A on the malaria vaccine implementation programme (MVIP) World Health Organization 2019 Website English

 

Measles and rubella

Title Author Year Type Language
A Guide to Introducing a 2nd Dose of Measles Vaccine into Routine Immunization Schedules World Health Organization 2013 Document English, French
Framework for verifying elimination of measles and rubella World Health Organization 2013 Journal article English, French
Global Measles and Rubella Strategic Plan 2012-2020 World Health Organization 2012 Document English
Guidance Note: Criteria to determine if a vaccine is routine or supplemental World Health Organization/UNICEF 2011 Document English
Introducing Rubella Vaccine into National Immunization Programmes. A step by step guide World Health Organization 2015 Document English, French
Manual for the Laboratory-based Surveillance of Measles, Rubella, and Congenital Rubella Syndrome World Health Organization 2018 Document English
Measles Programmatic Risk Assessment Tool World Health Organization Website English, French
Measles vaccines: WHO position paper World Health Organization 2017 Journal article English
Planning and implementing high-quality supplementary immunization activities for injectable vaccines using an example of measles and rubella vaccines Alya Dabbagh 2016 Document English
Rubella vaccines position paper World Health Organization 2011 Journal article English, French
SIA readiness assessment tool: dashboard and excel sheets World Health Organization Website English, French

 

Meningitis

Title Author Year Type Language
Epidemic meningitis surveillance in the African meningitis belt World Health Organization 2014 Document English, French
Investigation of a Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup A Case in the Meningitis Belt World Health Organization 2017 Document English, French
Meningitis outbreak response in sub-Saharan Africa World Health Organization 2014 Document English
Meningococcal A conjugate vaccine: updated guidance World Health Organization 2015 Journal article English, French
Meningococcal vaccines: WHO position paper World Health Organization 2011 Journal article English, French
Surveillance tools for meningitis sentinel hospital surveillance: field guide to rapidly estimate the hospital catchment population (denominator) and the annual rate of hospitalisations World Health Organization 2015 Document English

 

Mumps 

Title Author Year Type Language
Mumps vaccines position paper World Health Organization 2007 Journal article English, French

 

Pertussis

Title Author Year Type Language
Generic protocol for estimating the burden of Pertussis in young children World Health Organization 2015 Document English
Laboratory Manual for the diagnosis of whooping cough caused by bordetella pertussis/bordetella parapertussis : update 2014 World Health Organization 2014 Document English
WHO position paper on Pertussis vaccines World Health Organization 2015 Journal article English, French

 

Pneumococcal

Title Author Year Type Language
WHO position paper on Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in infants and children under 5 years of age World Health Organization 2019 Journal article English, French

 

Polio

Title Author Year Type Language
Classification and reporting of vaccine-derived polioviruses ((VDPV) GPEI 2016 Document English
Containment Certification Scheme to support the WHO Global Action Plan for Poliovirus Containment (GAPIII-CCS) World Health Organization Website Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish
Fractional dose IPV decision-making summary guide World Health Organization Website English, French
Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) Tools, Protocols and Guidelines World Health Organization Website English
Guide to introducing HPV vaccine into national immunization programmes World Health Organization Website English, French
Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 World Health Organization 2013 Document English, French
Polio laboratory manual, 4th edition World Health Organization 2004 Document English
Polio post-certification strategy GPEI 2017 Document English
Polio vaccines: WHO position paper – March, 2016 World Health Organization 2016 Document English
SOP: Responding to a Poliovirus Outbreak or Event (Parts 1 and 2) GPEI Website English
Supplement 1 to the WHO Polio Laboratory Manual An alternative test algorithm for poliovirus isolation and characterization World Health Organization Document English
Supplement 2 to the WHO Polio Laboratory Manual Adaptation of newly received cells to local conditions World Health Organization Document English

 

Rabies

Title Author Year Type Language
WHO Expert Consultation on Rabies, 2nd report World Health Organization 2013 Document English
WHO position paper on Rabies vaccines World Health Organization 2018 Journal article English, French

 

Rotavirus

Title Author Year Type Language
Change in vaccine vial monitor (VVM) assignment for GlaxoSmithKline Rotarix product World Health Organization 2017 Document English
Generic protocol for monitoring impact of rotavirus vaccination on gastroenteritis disease burden and viral strains World Health Organization 2009 Document English
Manual of rotavirus detection and characterization methods World Health Organization Document English
Post-marketing surveillance of rotavirus vaccine safety World Health Organization 2009 Document English
WHO position paper on Rotavirus vaccines World Health Organization 2013 Journal article English, French

 

Tetanus

Title Author Year Type Language
Protecting All Against Tetanus: Guide to sustaining maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination (MNTE) and broadening tetanus protection for all populations World Health Organization 2019 Document English
Replacement of TT with Td vaccine – July 2018 World Health Organization 2018 Website English, French
Tetanus serosurvey guidance World Health Organization 2018 Document English
Tetanus vaccines: WHO position paper World Health Organization 2017 Journal article English, French

 

Typhoid

Title Author Year Type Language
Typhoid vaccines: WHO position paper – March 2018 World Health Organization 2018 Journal article English

 

Varicella/ Herpes Zoster

Title Author Year Type Language
Varicella and herpes zoster vaccines: WHO position paper, June 2014 - Recommendations. World Health Organization 2016 Journal article English

 

Yellow fever

Title Author Year Type Language
Eliminate Yellow fever Epidemics (EYE): a global strategy, 2017–2026 Justus Benzler et al. 2017 Journal article English
Global Strategy to Eliminate Yellow Fever Epidemics (EYE) World Health Organization 2016 Document English
WHO Position Paper on Yellow Fever vaccines – July 2013 World Health Organization 2013 Journal article English, French
Yellow fever vaccine: WHO position on the use of fractional doses – June 2017 World Health Organization 2017 Document English

 

  

By theme

 

Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI) Surveillance

Title Author Year Type Language
Global Manual on Surveillance of Adverse Events Following Immunization World Health Organization 2014 Document English

 

Controlled Temperature Chain (CTC) and Extended Controlled Temperature Conditions (ECTC)

Note: for additional information on CTC and ECTC, please refer to Controlled temperature chain - technical resources.

Title Author Year Type Language
CTC background material and other resources World Health Organization Website English, French
Countries’ interest in a hepatitis B vaccine licensed for the controlled temperature chain; survey results from African and Western Pacific regions Petit D. & all 2017 Journal article English
ECTC infographic World Health Organization Document English
The controlled temperature chain (CTC): frequently asked questions World Health Organization 2016 Document English

 

Health Systems Strengthening (HSS) 

Title Author Year Type Language
Aligning public financial management and health financing World Health Organization 2017 Document English
A system-wide approach to analysing efficiency across health programmes World Health Organization 2017 Document English, French
Developing a national health financing strategy: a reference guide World Health Organization 2017 Document Arabic, English, French, Russian
Towards UHC: thinking public - Overview of trends in public expenditure on health (2000-2014) World Health Organization 2017 Document English

 

Immunological Basis for Immunization 

Title Author Year Type Language
The Immunological Basis for Immunization Series World Health Organization Website English

 

Integration

Title Author Year Type Language
GAPPD: ending preventable child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea by 2025 World Health Organization/UNICEF 2013 Document English
Working together: An integration resource guide for planning and strengthening immunization services throughout the life course World Health Organization 2018 Document English, French

  

Market Information for Access (MI4A)

Title Author Year Type Language
Global Market Study: Diphtheria & Tetanus Containing Vaccines World Health Organization 2018 Document English
Global Market Study: HPV World Health Organization 2018 Document English
Global Market Update: BCG Vaccine World Health Organization 2017 Document English
MI4A 2017 Vaccine Purchase Data – cover note for countries World Health Organization 2018 Document English
MI4A Global Vaccine Market Report World Health Organization 2018 Document English
MI4A Project Overview World Health Organization 2018 Document English
V3P: Key Findings for Rota World Health Organization 2018 Document English
V3P: PCV Fact sheet World Health Organization 2018 Document English
Vaccine Pricing: Gavi Fully Self Financing and Accelerated Transition Countries World Health Organization 2018 Document English

 

Missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV)

Title Author Year Type Language
Methodology for the Assessment of Missed Opportunities for Vaccination World Health Organization 2017 Document English, French
Missed Opportunities for Vaccination (MOV) Strategy World Health Organization Website English, French
Planning Guide to Reduce Missed Opportunities for Vaccination World Health Organization 2017 Document English, French, Portuguese

 

Monitoring, data and coverage

Note: for additional resources on home-based records (HBRs), please refer to Home-based records - technical resources.

Title Author Year Type Language
Assessing and Improving the Accuracy of Target Population Estimates for Immunization Coverage World Health Organization 2015 Document English
Civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) World Health Organization Website English
Data Quality Review (DQR) Toolkit World Health Organization 2017 Document English
Global Immunization Summary World Health Organization Website English
Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER) GATHER Website Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish
Immunization in Practice. Module 6. Monitoring and Surveillance World Health Organization 2015 Document English
Practical `How-to’ guides for vaccination coverage surveys World Health Organization Website English
The immunization data quality audit (DQA) procedure World Health Organization 2003 Tool English
The immunization data quality self-assessment (DQS) tool World Health Organization 2005 Tool English
World Health Organization Vaccination Coverage Cluster Surveys: Reference Manual World Health Organization 2018 Document English

 

Planning and financing

Title Author Year Type Language
A guide for conducting an Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) Review World Health Organization 2018 Document English, Russian
Immunization Financing A resource guide for advocates, policymakers, and program managers Results for Development (R4D) 2017 Document English
Immunization financing guidance and tools World Health Organization Website English, Spanish
WHO-UNICEF guidelines for developing a comprehensive multi-year plan (cMYP) World Health Organization 2013 Document English, French, Russian

 

Private sector

Title Author Year Type Language
WHO Guidance Note: Engagement of private providers in immunization service delivery. Considerations for National Immunization Programmes World Health Organization 2017 Document English, French, Russian

 

Routine immunization and vaccine introduction

Title Author Year Type Language
Global routine immunization strategies and practices (GRISP) World Health Organization 2016 Document English
New Vaccine Post-Introduction Evaluation Tool World Health Organization 2003 Document English
Periodic Intensification of Routine Immunization (PIRI): Lessons learned and implications for action World Health Organization 2009 Document English
Principles and considerations for adding a vaccine to a national immunization programme - From decision to implementation and monitoring World Health Organization 2014 Document Arabic, English, French, Russian, Spanish
Reducing pain at time of vaccination position paper World Health Organization 2015 Document English
WHO recommendations for routine immunization - summary tables World Health Organization Document English

 

School-based & life-course vaccination

Title Author Year Type Language
Considerations regarding consent in vaccinating children and adolescents between 6 and 17 years old World Health Organization 2014 Document English, French, Russian, Spanish
Global Accelerated Action for the Health of Adolescents (AA-HA!): guidance to support country implementation World Health Organization 2017 Document Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish
Global Strategy for Women's, Children's and Adolescents Health 2016-2030 World Health Organization 2015 Document Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish
School Vaccination Readiness Assessment Tool World Health Organization 2013 Tool English

 

Second Year of Life (2YL)

 

Supply chain and logistics

Note: for additional resources, please refer to Cold chain equipment management - technical resources.

Title Author Year Type Language
Achieving immunization targets with the comprehensive effective vaccine management (EVM) framework World Health Organization 2016 Document English
Cold room temperature mapping studies World Health Organization 2018 Document English
EVM Global Data Analysis 2009-2016 World Health Organization 2017 Document English
Effective Vaccine Management (EVM) global data analysis 2009-2014 World Health Organization 2015 Document English
Guidance Note: How to Develop a Continuous Improvement Plan (cIP) World Health Organization 2018 Document English, French
Immunization supply chain and logistics - A neglected but essential system for national immunization programmes World Health Organization 2014 Document English
Off-label use of vaccines Pieter Neels et al. 2017 Journal article English
Perception of health workers on the use of 30-day temperature recorders World Health Organization 2018 Document English
Perception of health workers on the use of remote temperature monitoring systems World Health Organization 2018 Document English
Solar direct-drive vaccine refrigerators and freezers 2017 Document English
System design approach to improve the immunization supply chain World Health Organization 2018 Document English
Temperature monitoring study: a fully documented process to detect weaknesses in the supply chain World Health Organization 2018 Document English
Vaccine Management Handbook: How to use passive containers and coolant-packs for vaccine transport and outreach operations - WHO IVB 15.03 2015 Document English
WHO Guidance: Vaccine Diluents - Revision 2015 World Health Organization 2015 Document English
WHO policy on the use of opened multi-dose vaccine vials (2014 Revision) World Health Organization 2014 Document English, French

 

Training and e-Learning

Title Author Year Type Language
Effective Vaccine Management (EVM) training resources World Health Organization Website English, French
Global Mid-level Management modules (MLM) – 2008 update World Health Organization 2008 Website English, French
Immunization in Practice World Health Organization 2015 Document English, French
Standard Competencies Framework for the Immunization Workforce World Health Organization Website English, French
Vaccination in humanitarian emergencies World Health Organization Website English

 

Vaccination & Surveillance in Humanitarian Emergencies

Title Author Year Type Language
Outbreak surveillance and response in humanitarian emergencies: WHO guidelines for EWARN implementation World Health Organization Document English
Vaccination in Humanitarian Emergencies: Implementation Guide World Health Organization 2017 Document English, French
Vaccination in acute humanitarian emergencies: a framework for decision making World Health Organization 2013 Document English, French
Vaccination in humanitarian emergencies – eTool and eLearning course World Health Organization Website English

 

Vaccine Safety

Title Author Year Type Language
E-learning course on Vaccine Safety Basics World Health Organization 2013 Document English, French
The Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety (GVSI) World Health Organization Website English
The Global Vaccine Safety Initiative (GVSI) World Health Organization Website English, French

 

Vaccine-preventable Disease (VPD) Surveillance

Title Author Year Type Language
Global framework for immunization monitoring and surveillance World Health Organization/CDC 2007 Website English, French
NUVI - Resources for monitoring and surveillance World Health Organization Website English, French
Vaccine Preventable Diseases Surveillance Standards World Health Organization 2018 Document English
WHO manual for organizing a national external quality assessment programme for health laboratories and other testing sites World Health Organization 2016 Document English, French
https://www.who.int/immunization/monitoring_surveillance/burden/laboratory/en/ World Health Organization Website English, French

 

WHO: general

Title Author Year Type Language
Thirteenth general programme of work 2019−2023 World Health Assembly 2018 Website Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish
WHO: The Global Guardian of Public Health World Health Organization Website Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish
WHO Accountability Framework World Health Organization 2015 Document English
WHO’s Mission and Vision in Immunization and Vaccines (2015-2030) World Health Organization 2016 Document English

  

 

By group

  

Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (IPAC)

Title Author Year Type Language
Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (IPAC) World Health Organization Website English
Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (IPAC) meeting reports World Health Organization Website English

 

Immunization and vaccines related implementation research advisory committee (IVIR-AC) 

Title Author Year Type Language
IVIR-AC Meeting reports and executive summaries World Health Organization Website English
Immunization and vaccines related implementation research advisory committee (IVIR-AC) World Health Organization Website English

 

National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs)

Title Author Year Type Language
A global look at national Immunization Technical Advisory Groups Philippe Duclos and al. 2010 Journal article English, French, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish
Guidelines for defining NITAG annual work plan SIVAC Document English, French, Russian
Indicators to assess National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) Julia Blau et al. 2013 Journal article English
Informing decision makers: Experience and process of 15 National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups 2010 Journal article English, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish
Moving forward on strengthening and sustaining National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) globally: Recommendations from the 2nd global NITAG network meeting Global NITAG Network 2017 Journal article English
NITAG 1st meeting report: Strategic document of the Global NITAG Network Global NITAG Network Document English
National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs): Guidance for their establishment and strengthening Philippe Duclos Journal article English, French, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish
Resource Center for National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) worldwide Website English, French, Russian, Spanish
Supporting countries in establishing and strengthening NITAGs: Lessons learned from 5 years of the SIVAC initiative 2014 Document English
The role of NITAGs in strengthening national vaccine decision-making: A comparative case study of Armenia, Ghana, Indonesia, Nigeria, Senegal and Uganda Howard N, Walls H, Bell S, Mounier-Jack S 2018 Journal article English

 

Strategic Advisory Group of Experts [on immunization]

Title Author Year Type Language
Meeting of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization, October 2018 – Conclusions and recommendations World Health Organization 2018 Journal article English, French
Meeting of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization, April 2017 – conclusions and recommendations World Health Organization 2017 Journal article English, French
Meeting of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization, April 2018 – conclusions and recommendations World Health Organization 2018 Journal article English, French
Meeting of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization, October 2017 – conclusions and recommendations World Health Organization 2017 Journal article English, French
SAGE Meeting Reports World Health Organization Website English