Single versus multi-dose vaccine vials: An economic computational model


Single-dose vaccine formats can prevent clinic-level vaccine wastage but may incur higher production, medical waste disposal, and storage costs than multi-dose formats. To help guide vaccine developers, manufacturers, distributors, and purchasers, we developed a computational model to predict the potential economic impact of various single-dose versus multi-dose measles (MEA), hemophilus influenzae type B (Hib), Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), yellow fever (YF), and pentavalent (DTP-HepB-Hib) vaccine formats. Lower patient demand favors fewer dose formats. The mean daily patient arrival thresholds for each vaccine format are as follows: for the MEA vaccine, 2 patients/day (below which the single-dose vial and above which the 10-dose vial are least costly); BCG vaccine, 6 patients/day (below, 10-dose vial; above, 20-dose vial); Hib vaccine, 5 patients/day (below, single-dose vial; above, 10-dose vial); YF vaccine, 33 patients/day (below, 5-dose vials; above 50-dose vial); and DTP-HepB-Hib vaccine, 5 patients/day (below, single-dose vial; above, 10-dose vial).