Reducing pain at the time of vaccination: WHO position paper
This position paper is the first policy paper on pain mitigation at the time of vaccination. It integrates information pertaining to the reduction of pain, distress and fear across all age groups. A systematic review which examined 55 interventions (including for injections unrelated to vaccination) applicable to infants, children, adolescents, and adults was used as the basis of the review by SAGE. Interventions were selected for potential global implementation, taking into consideration the following criteria: benefits and harms; patients’ values and preferences; resource utilization; cost of interventions; impact on equity; acceptability; and feasibility from a global perspective. Assessment of the global feasibility of interventions requires consideration of their relevance and cultural acceptability within different geographic regions and cultural settings, in particular in low and middle income countries.