Missed Opportunities for Vaccination (MOV)

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A missed opportunity for vaccination (MOV) refers to any contact with health services by a child or adult who is eligible for vaccination, which does not result in the person receiving one or more of the vaccine doses for which he or she is eligible. When countries observe that their vaccination coverage is decreasing or stagnating, they seek alternative strategies to explore the reasons and design tailored strategies to address them. The MOV strategy, which includes the 1) Planning Guide to Reduce Missed Opportunities for Vaccination, 2) Methodology for the Assessment of Missed Opportunities for Vaccination and 3) Intervention guidebook for implementing and monitoring activities to reduce Missed Opportunities for Vaccination, was designed to help decision-makers and national or subnational programme managers reduce MOV. The MOV strategy aims to increase immunization coverage by simply making better use of existing vaccination sites and promoting synergy between different maternal and child health programmes. The MOV strategy answers three important questions:

  • How many opportunities were missed?
  • Why are these opportunities being missed?
  • What can be adjusted or done differently?

Once these questions have been addressed, the MOV strategy aims to link and translate the MOV findings into actionable solutions and interventions to reduce MOV, especially at the facility level where vaccination services are provided.

This page was created and is maintained by the WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) and provides a list of resources related to MOV.

 

MOV publications

This collection contains technical and methodological publications on MOV

Titre Auteur An Type La langue
Opportunities to improve vaccination coverage in a country with a fledgling health system: Findings from an assessment of missed opportunities for vaccination among health center attendees—Timor Leste, 2016 Anyie J.Li, Thelge Sudath Rohana Peiris, Colin Sanderson, Laura Nic Lochlainn, Manuel Mausiry, Rosye Bela Joana Benevides Monizda Silva, Ikechukwu Udo Ogbuanu 2019 Journal article English
Intervention guidebook for implementing and monitoring activities to reduce Missed Opportunities for Vaccination World Health Organization 2019 Document English
Can vaccination coverage be improved by reducing missed opportunities for vaccination? Findings from assessments in Chad and Malawi using the new WHO methodology Ikechukwu Udo Ogbuanu, Anyie J. Li, Blanche-philomene Melanga Anya, Mbaihol Tamadji, Geoffrey Chirwa, Kwame W. Chiwaya, Mohamed El-Hafiz Djalal, Dah Cheikh, Zorodzai Machekanyanga, Joseph Okeibunor, Colin Sanderson, Richard Mihigo 2019 Journal article English
Increasing routine immunization coverage by reducing missed opportunities for vaccination World Health Organization 2017 Document French, English
 

 

MOV training material

This collection contains tools and resources for training on MOV.

Titre Auteur An Type La langue
Training slides and sample agenda World Health Organization 2017 Website English
 

 

Interventions to reduce MOV by addressing health worker knowledge, attitudes and practice

Country examples and/or resources to address health worker knowledge, attitudes and practice.

Titre Auteur An Type La langue
Assessment of vaccine wastage rates, missed opportunities, and related KAPs during introduction of a second dose of measles-containing vaccine into Cambodia’s national immunization program Aaron S. Wallace, Kong Krey, John Hustedt, Eleanor Burnett, Narin Choun, Danni Daniels, Margaret L. Watkins, Sann Chan Soeung, Richard Duncan 2018 Journal article English
Vaccination calendar from Thailand, including accelerated schedule Thailand Ministry of Public Health 2017 Document Thai
Annex 4: Illustrative example of job aid on screening for vaccine eligibility (2YL Guidance) World Health Organization 2018 Website English
Australian Measles vaccination catch-up guide National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance 2019 Website English
Ministry of Health and Child Care Vaccination Calendar Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care and partners 2017 Tool English
Flow chart for integrated maternal and child health from Kenya UNICEF Tool English
Tool for catch-up vaccination from Malawi Malawi Ministry of Health 2017 Tool English
Working together: An integration resource guide for planning and strengthening immunization services throughout the life course World Health Organization 2018 Document French, English
 

 

Interventions to reduce MOV by addressing health systems issues

Country examples and/or resources to address health systems issues.

Titre Auteur An Type La langue
Assessment of vaccine wastage rates, missed opportunities, and related KAPs during introduction of a second dose of measles-containing vaccine into Cambodia’s national immunization program Aaron S. Wallace, Kong Krey, John Hustedt, Eleanor Burnett, Narin Choun, Danni Daniels, Margaret L. Watkins, Sann Chan Soeung, Richard Duncan 2018 Journal article English
Annex 4: Illustrative example of job aid on screening for vaccine eligibility (2YL Guidance) World Health Organization 2018 Website English
Immunization flip-chart from Ghana Ghana Health Service and partners 2017 Document English
Urban Immunization Toolkit Urban Immunization Working Group 2018 Tool French, English
WHO recommendations for routine immunization - summary tables World Health Organization 2019 Website English
Opportunities to improve vaccination coverage in a country with a fledgling health system: Findings from an assessment of missed opportunities for vaccination among health center attendees—Timor Leste, 2016 Anyie J.Li, Thelge Sudath Rohana Peiris, Colin Sanderson, Laura Nic Lochlainn, Manuel Mausiry, Rosye Bela Joana Benevides Monizda Silva, Ikechukwu Udo Ogbuanu 2019 Journal article English
Can vaccination coverage be improved by reducing missed opportunities for vaccination? Findings from assessments in Chad and Malawi using the new WHO methodology Ikechukwu Udo Ogbuanu, Anyie J. Li, Blanche-philomene Melanga Anya, Mbaihol Tamadji, Geoffrey Chirwa, Kwame W. Chiwaya, Mohamed El-Hafiz Djalal, Dah Cheikh, Zorodzai Machekanyanga, Joseph Okeibunor, Colin Sanderson, Richard Mihigo 2019 Journal article English
Working together: An integration resource guide for planning and strengthening immunization services throughout the life course World Health Organization 2018 Document French, English
Data Quality Review (DQR) Toolkit World Health Organization 2017 Document English
Vaccination Programs: Standing Orders The Community Guide 2015 Website English
 

 

Interventions to reduce MOV by addressing the demand-side (caregiver behaviours)

Country examples and/or resources to address demand-side (caregiver behaviours).

Titre Auteur An Type La langue
Lao PDR vaccination sticker Lao PDR Ministry of Health and partners Tool Lao
A picture speaks a thousand words: evaluation of a pictorial post-vaccination care resource in Australia Hammad Ali, Holly Seale, Kirsten Ward, Nicholas Zwar 2010 Document English