Vaccine Vial Monitor (VVM) - technical resources

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VVMs (Vaccine Vial Monitors) are small indicators that adhere to vaccine vials and change color as the vaccine is exposed to cumulative heat, letting health workers know whether the vaccine has exceeded a pre-set limit beyond which the vaccine should not be used. This page provides a list of useful resources on VVMs, organised into the following sections: 

What is a VVM?

The following resources introduce the VVM and explain how it works.

  

How to read a VVM

Resources that explain how to read a VVM to determine whether a vaccine can be safely used for immunization.

 

VVM training videos for healthcare workers

Videos on how healthcare workers should use VVMs.

 

VVM resources for supply chain managers

Resources that provide guidance for supply chain managers on how VVMs should be utilised by national immunization programs. 

 

VVM in a Controlled Temperature Chain (CTC)

Resources on CTC with reference to VVMs and Peak Temperature Threshold Indicators (PTTI).

 

WHO PQS performance specifications 

Resources that provide technical reference material on the science behind VVM.

 

Other VVM resources

Journal articles, webinars, and other publications that provide background information on the VVM.