Gavi Immunization Supply Chain Strategy

Strengthening Immunization Supply Chains

Increasing vaccine coverage and reducing under-five mortality through stronger immunization supply chains

In 2014, the Gavi Alliance partners developed the Gavi Immunization Supply Chains (iSC) Strategy focusing on strengthening country immunization supply chains. From the port of entry to the immunization in clinics, the supply chain is critical to ensure potent vaccines are available to the beneficiaries in an efficient manner.

The strategy is built on five fundamentals essential to strengthen the performance of immunization supply chains. The fundamentals are: Supply Chain Leadership, Continuous Improvement & Planning, Supply Chain Data for Management, Cold Chain Equipment and Supply Chain System Design.

Through the Gavi iSC Strategy, national immunization managers, implementing partners and other immunization supply chain experts will gain access to targeted technical assistance and guidance documents, tools, case stories and other material that can help them improve immunization supply chains in countries.

TechNet-21 - Forum

  • The story of a time and temperature indicator (vaccine vial monitor) that has dramatically changed the course of vaccine management practices as well as shaped the future of cold chain, THE BOOK OF VVM: YESTERDAY-TODAY-and-TOMORROW is now available for free download in ePUB3 and PDF formats.

    vvm cover copy

    We may ask ourselves where humanity might be without some of the greatest inventions that have come to pass. Great ideas have continuously changed the path of human civilization over time with vaccination being widely considered one of the greatest medical achievements of modern civilization. Many commonplace and preventable childhood diseases are now increasingly rare because of vaccines. The concerted human effort to bring the vaccines to the ones who need them at the right time is remarkable.

    Just one example of the dedication and self-sacrifice involved was the 1925 ‘Serum Run’ between the settlements of Nenana and Nome in Alaska also known as the Great Race of Mercy. This involved a famously grueling winter expedition across the frozen Alaskan interior using dog-sled relays to take diphtheria antitoxin to the beleaguered township of Nome where an outbreak of diphtheria was threatening around 10,000 local Alaskan natives who had no natural immunity to this lethal disease. The epic journey took 20 mushers and about 150 sled dogs just five and a half days to cover the 1,085 km route. This display of bravery and determination was how the small town of Nome and the communities surrounding it were saved from an incipient epidemic. Balto, the lead sled dog on the final leg into Nome, became the most famous canine celebrity of the era. Balto’s statue became a popular tourist attraction both in New York City’s Central Park and downtown Anchorage in Alaska.

    The vaccine vial monitor (VVM) is one of the most important inventions of the last century; one that has dramatically changed vaccine management practices and continues to shape the cold chain. In 1996, when VVMs started to get to countries with the oral polio vaccine (OPV), I was the health officer for the UNICEF Central Asian Republics and Kazakhstan Area Office. I remember one particularly cold night going to the airport in Almaty at 03.00 am to receive the very first shipment of OPV with VVMs. For years, I was a humble VVM user and advocate in the field. Things started to change when I was hired by the WHO Headquarters ‘Access to Technologies’ team in 2001 and VVM became one of my prime responsibilities. That was at a time when vaccine manufacturers were dragging their feet about incorporating VVM onto vaccines other than OPV. My brief was to overcome this resistance from the manufacturers, an objective that formed the basis for my plans for the historic 2002 VVM technical consultation meeting.

    In 2007, I immensely enjoyed organizing the event to celebrate the 10th year anniversary of VVM introduction. Visiting Niger, Indonesia, and Vietnam for the shooting of the “Five Senses” video is full of cherished moments.

    Screen Shot 2019 10 21 at 20.44.21 copy

    Towards my retirement in August 2018, I conceived the idea of writing this book. I was one of the few people who had witnessed the decades-long programme of VVM development from its birth to its maturity. I had worked with sweat and tears to get VVMs onto all vaccines as well as tirelessly helping vaccine managers and health staff to excel in using the VVMs to their utmost potential. Today, it is a great pleasure to see one of my e-VVM based vaccine management course graduates (2015), Junaidu Adamu Barde from Nigeria, working for the Clinton Health Access Initiative, using the course learning materials to duplicate efforts in his country.

    I worked on this book from September 2018 to August 2019. I went through every single published and unpublished work on VVMs, watched all available videos about VVMs and the early contending products, talked to key people, some face to face, others over the phone. I visited the U.S., Albania, Burkina Faso, and Sierra Leone. Unfortunately, there were some people I just could not reach despite all my efforts with email and phone messages. And, although I considered myself highly knowledgeable about VVM, I was simply amazed at the volume of new information I discovered and the knowledge I gained.

    I had originally wanted this book to be a concise, structured, globally-relevant manual that provided comprehensive information on a wide scope of issues; in other words, an ‘A-Z of VVM’. In the event, it turned out to be more voluminous than I thought. I did not want to restrict myself when there are so many clever, dedicated and selfless individuals that have made this near-miraculous innovation a reality and in doing so contributed to saving, literally, the lives of millions.

    So, I am happy that it became a celebration of all the efforts of individuals, organizations, agencies, donors, and manufacturers involved in the development, scaling, applying, advocating for, enforcing, helping health workers to excel in their practice, and using it.

    As with my previous books, I have again licensed this work under the Creative Commons (CC) Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0). The book can be reproduced, remixed, tweaked or built upon non-commercially.

    I am grateful to Temptime Corporation, and especially to Renaat Van den Hooff and Ted Prusik for sponsoring the creation of this book. I thank Emily Moore for the VVM literature list she put together, it eased my search enormously. I also thank all the individuals I have interviewed for their time and everything they have shared with me. I am thankful to all my colleagues who sent me photographs, and documents. Many thanks to Kadir Abbas for making again an excellent job on the cover and page design, print, and ePUB3 conversion. Gencer Yurttas deserves a special thank you for his immaculate VVM photography. I deeply appreciate Alan Kennedy for his editing work, and Umran and Gokhan Akaalp's help in developing the book’s website. I am grateful to my wife Nellie and daughter Deniz Nala who supported me with love. Deniz Nala was already helping me at the age of 14 measuring VVMs with a spectrodensitometer and entering data into an Excel sheet to calculate optical density differences during a VVM based vaccine management eLearning course.

    I never imagined that for something only 0.38 cm2 in size that I could write a book of 424 pages. This ‘little big thing’, now reinventing itself with the incorporation of a peak threshold indicator as well as entering the digitized supply chain with the integration of 2D barcodes, never ceases to amaze me.

    For download please visit

    The book is available both in interactive PDF (32.9 MB) and ePUB3 (24.4 MB) versions. 424 pages...


  • Le mercredi 28 août 2019 à 15 heures, s'est tenue à Abidjan une importante rencontre entre les Scholars de Côte d'Ivoire et les autorités du PEV national. L'ordre du jour a porté essentiellement sur la présentation du groupe pays Côte d'Ivoire.

    La rencontre a vu la présence effective du Professeur EKRA  Daniel, Directeur Coordonnateur du PEV national et d'une dizaine de Scholars venus de tous les coins du pays.

    Le Team Leader, Kouame Etienne Gata a dans son intervention situé le contexte de la rencontre après avoir remercié l'équipe dirigeante de la DCPEV.  Le Chef d'équipe est revenu dans son exposé sur l'approche pédagogique de l'OMS qui depuis 2016 a recours à la méthode Scholar afin de soutenir le renforcement des capacités des pays pour la vaccination. Cette methode développée par la Fondation Apprendre Genève vise à renforcer les compétences et les actions dans les domaines de la Santé publique et de l'humanitaire. Le groupe pays Côte d'Ivoire à l'instars de nombreux autres pays du monde s'est engagé résolument dans l'aprentissage des cours Scholar et compte aujourd'hui plus de cinquante (50) apprenants que ce soit pour les cours Survey  Scholars,  SPMVS , AMV.   

    Poursuivant son exposé sur la présentation du groupe Côte d'Ivoire, le Team Leader a montré l'effort de structuration interne qui a été fait et informé le Directeur Cordonnateur du PEV sur la mise en oeuvre de certains projets individuels dans le cadre de l'Accélérateur d'Impact. Il a ajouté qu'un projet collectif conforme au PPac 2019-2020, qui s'intègre dans l'effort plus général de réduction des inégalités et d'amélioration de la couverture vaccinale du pays a été élaboré et attend d'être implémenté après validation et appui de  la DCPEV. Il a été appuyé en cela par le Porte-parole du groupe , M.  AKAFFOU Fulgence qui a décrit l'expérience de mise en oeuvre de son projet individuel.

    Le Chef d'équipe a avant de clore son intervention,  procedé à la lecture du serment pour l'impact sous les applaudissements de l'assistance. Prenant la parole, le Directeur Coordonnateur du PEV a remercié les participants et décidé d'apporter un appui ferme aux Scholars de Côte d'Ivoire. Il a instruit le Team Leader de faire parvenir à la DCPEV, la liste des Scholars et souhaité la présentation et la validation par sa structure du projet collectif.

    Le deuxième temps fort de la cérémonie a été marquée par la remise symbolique des Certificats OMS Scholars par le Directeur aux différents Scholars présents.

    Commencée à 15 h 04 mn, la rencontre a pris fin à 16 h 17 mn avec la prise de photo d'ensemble.

    Fait à Abidjan le 28 août 2019

    Le Team Leader pays

    Kouame Etienne Gata

  • See the attached announcement for details on the upcoming webinar series.

    Register in advance for the Strategic Planning for Immunization Supply Chain webinar on September 17th using this link:

    After registering, you will receive a confirmation email containing information about joining the webinar. A link to register for each subsequent webinar will be emailed to you in advance of each webinar.

    Please address any questions to Barbara Lamphere at

  • Estamad@s colegas / Dear colleagues

    Iniciamos el ciclo de Webinars con la Red Centroamericana de Informática en Salud / We start the webinars cycle with Central American Health Informatics Network.

    - Tema / topic: Historia Clínica Electrónica / Electronic Health Records

    - Día /day: Sábado 31 de agosto de 2019 / Saturday, August 31th 2019

    - Hora / time: 10 AM - Centro América / Central America 11 AM - Bogotá 12 PM - Washington D.C. (EST)

    - Registro en / register:

    ** Only Spanish language

    Agradecemos compartir esta información con sus redes de contactos / We thank you for sharing with your networks.

    Saludos cordiales / Best regards

    Daniel Otzoy

  • Dear colleagues, 

     Immunization Academy would like to share some exciting news with the TechNet community. 

    As of July 2019, all 94 video lessons are available in French. With the complete catalogue of free video lessons now available in French, Swahili, and English, we hope that Immunization Academy will be accessible to an even broader audience.  

    As you may know, Immunization Academy launched in summer of 2017 to provide short, how-to video lessons for immunization professionals on topics such as cold chain, data monitoring, vaccine delivery, and more. We now have 33,000 learners in 195 countries. 

    Use Immunization Academy to: 

    • Refresh your skills in your moment of need - Immunization Academy is free and accessible on any device 
    • Download videos to watch offline  - You can learn and share knowledge with others without using cellular data or WiFi 
    • Improve the performance of team members - Provide on-the-job training through quick, targeted video lessons 
    • Learn a new skill - Create an account to save your favorite videos and build video playlists 

    We are currently working on adding new video topics and features that will make the learning experience even better for users around the globe. In the meantime, please share any suggestions you have directly with
    Alice Bumgarner 
    Director, Immunization Academy 

  • La Fondation Apprendre Genève a le plaisir d'annoncer le lancement par l'Organisation pan-américaine de la Santé (OPS) de son programme Scholar, avec un cours inaugural en espagnol sur le thème des registres numériques de vaccination (RNV).

    Si vous souhaitez suivre ce cours en anglais ou en français, nous vous invitons à déclarer votre intérêt. Accédez au formulaire…

    Veuillez partager cette invitation avec vos collègues et réseaux de confiance. Lorsque vous enregistrez votre déclaration d'intérêt, le lien pour télécharger la publication "Registre numériques de vaccination: considérations pratiques pour la planification, le développement, la mise en œuvre et l'évaluation, 2018" (en anglais) s'affiche à l'écran.

    Si vous parlez espagnol ou travaillez avec des hispanophones, vous trouverez l'annonce complète du cours et le dossier de candidature via ce lien.

    Cliquez ici pour déclarer votre intérêt pour la version française…


    We are pleased to announce that the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) has just launched its Scholar programme with an inaugural course in Spanish on the topic of electronic immunization registries (EIR).

    If you would be interested in taking this course in English or in French, please complete this form to express your interest.

    Upon registering your interest, the link to download the publication “Electronic Immunization Registry: Practical Considerations for Planning, Development, Implementation and Evaluation, 2018” will be displayed on your screen.

    If you are a Spanish speaker or work with Spanish speakers, you will find the full course announcement via this link.

    Please share this call for expressions of interest with your trusted colleagues and networks.

  • La Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) le invita a postular al primer grupo del Curso de Certificación Nivel 1 sobre Planeación, Implementación y Evaluación del Registro de Vacunación Electrónico. Este curso digital interactivo en español (el curso en inglés se ofrecerá posteriormente) está dirigido a funcionarios del Programa Ampliado de Inmunización (PAI) y Administradores de Datos vinculados a los Ministerios de Salud a nivel nacional y regional, a los funcionarios de PAI de OPS de las sedes del país y de las agencias asociadas.

    Animamos al personal de vacunación que participe directamente en las actividades de registro de vacunación electrónico y que esté dispuesto a innovar en temas relacionados con la recolección de datos de vacunación, la calidad de los mismos y su utilización.

    La sesión informativa sobre este curso se llevará a cabo el 20 de agosto de 2019 a las 2 p.m. EST. Se recomienda encarecidamente a los solicitantes y otras partes interesadas que asistan.

    Cuando: Martes 20 de agosto de 2019 a las 2 p.m. EST (Hora en su ubicación)

    Enlace de registro: 

    Anuncio detallado (favor leer detenidamente antes de postular al curso):

    FECHA LIMITE: 28 de agosto del 2019


    Sólo los solicitantes admitidos recibirán una Carta de Aceptación por correo electrónico de parte de la OPS.

    Favor dirigir sus preguntas o comentarios a

  • After it all began...

    The month of July has been a very busy month for Scholars of both the French and English speaking cohorts in Cameroon. Throghout this month EPI activities at all levels of the health pyramid have been colored and flavored by the dynamism of the over 50 scholars scattered all over the national territory. It all began on the Thursday July 04, 2019 when the Permanent Secretary of the Central Technical Group for the Expanded Program on Immunization recognized Scholar Alumni during the EPI National Monitoring meeting by handing over their certificates to those present. That was the first mile engaged on the course to IMPACT and since then the Scholar Cameroon team has all but accelerated.

    With renewed enthusiasm and engagement we set out to build a strong country team, based on the guidance from the scholar team. Cameroon is a particular country because we have the opportunity to have two country groups because of our bilingual nature. I see this as an opportunity and not a threat that we can build on. We get to enjoy the best of both worlds (English and French of course!!!)

    So far, what have we achieved? 

    • We have been able to set up a national EPI team recognized by the National EPI Technical Group 
    • Held 4/4 weekly country team meetings within the four weeks of the launch pad on skype
    • 8 out of 10 Regions in Cameroon have functional Scholar groups that have met and have a designated team leader
    • All the two English speaking Regions of the North West and South West have prsented their projects to their Regional Delegates of Public Health
    • The country is working on implementing a common GRISP project that is currently under review
    • Based on the security challenges plaguing our two English speaking Regions they are working on common projects tailored with implementation strategies that will enable them to reach more children with immunization services
    • Individual scholars have taken steps towards implementing their projects especially those who did the GRISP level 1 and level 2 courses
    • Every opportunity we have had this month, we have used to contaminate others with the scholar spirit annd this has enabled us to get over 100 personnel at all levels of the health pyramid to apply for this fall's WHO Scholar Course on Data Improvement Planning

    What have we learnt?

    It is often said that to go fast, you should go alone, but to go far you should walk with others, but we have realised with the impact accelerator that with good organization, together we can actually go further and at a faster pace. More over, working together is more satisfying than working alone. We have moved from being theoritical to being concrete and practical,  engaged in getting measurable results.

    This matters to us because we are driven by a pledge for IMPACT that we have made with the sole goal of making a difference as far as reducing immunization inequities and improving immunization coverage is concerned. We have embarked on a course that can only gain momentum and pick up speed as time goes on until every child has received all the vaccines they need.

  • Having successfully completed the GRISP Level 1 certification course in routine immunization planning. WHO impact accelerator team call for urgent need to implement the project I developed through the course, titled: "Nigeria-invest in a tailored strategy that identify under vaccinated and unvaccinated persons and regularly provide them with the vaccines they need", to turn the project into action and result in Madobi local government area of Kano state as My district of implementation.

    Attached are resource and materials I developed and use to help me brought all partners on board and supportive during the implementation exercise. 

  • Dear all

    Routine Immunization programme is rapidly expanding in the country, more and more vaccines are included in the National Immunization Schedule [NIS] in phased manner. Rota Virus Vaccine is being introduced in Karnataka. As customary, in Dakshinakannada district, training programmes were held in 2 batches on 17th & 19th July 2019 in collaboration with WHO country office, this will be followed by training at block and planning unit level.

    With additional vaccines, additional cold space is required. Most of the multi dose vials have 10 or more doses e.g. 2mL OPV provides 20 doses, 5mL MR provides 10 doses, 2.5mL fIPV provides 25 doses. Currently supplied RVV is unique in the sense 5mL per vial after reconstitution has 2 doses of 2.5mL each. Hence the storage code is revised to accommodate Vaccine Vials if not the diluents.

    A Planning Unit in Karnataka is not having more than 30,000 populations, at 20 birth rate; estimated annual target of 0-1year children will be 600, on an average 50 per month. RVV vial requirement is 50 infants×3doses=150×1.11wmf [@90% usage] =166.5 doses +25% buffer stock=166.5+41.65 = 288.15; rounded off to 290. @ 2 doses per vial, 145 vials are needed with 145 diluents and 290 6mL oral syringes. Diluents and oral syringes can be kept outside the cold chain and required number of diluent vials need to be kept in the ILR at least 24hrs prior to the session.

    Karnataka has the luxury of having adequate planning units, majority do not have more than 350 children per year at least in the rural area. Author had revised the earlier storage code of 2012 designed for ILR’s with 2+1 baskets [140L] for 300L ILR with 3+2 baskets, submitted to the state government which issued official circular on 29 April 2018 to all the districts and planning units. Now, in view of above it is redesigned for operational use and submitting the draft to the government for needful.


    Dr Holla

  • Dear all

    During the routine visits to Medical Colleges, opportunistic proactive supportive supervision was provided which helps in updating the practices on the spot to keep pace with the current schedule.

    It also gives an opportunity to share the successful interventions through on the spot rectification and presentations.

    This being opportunistic and voluntary - it is a zero budget activity which anybody can do.

    Attached is one such example happened on 17 July 2019.

    Wish you happy reading




  • Nigeria EX-Scholars on the way to creating lasting impact

    WHO Scholar program a learning approach to bring sharing new innovations and intervention guideline to improving immunization system all over the globe has been widely received by Nigerians and other scholars in different countries across the globe.

    The WHO Scholar Program have deepen our knowledge in immunization system and how to improve in immunizations coverages in our different context and further creating lasting impact. In fact we now thinking differently outside the box towards bringing innovative ideas and strategies that will improve immunization program quality and coverage. This has been possible through having different learning methodology like the open webinars, short videos by experience course contributors from WHO, UNICEF, CDC etc, peer review process, sharing of guidelines by course team, whatsup platform, and other platform created by the Geneva Learning Foundation.

    Nigeria Ex-scholars who have completed one or more of the WHO Scholar courses have come together to meet digitally to brainstorm on the way forward towards implementation of the courses they have learn so far. They have decided to take a holistic approach towards Impact accelerators exercise, by this approach they have decided to harmonized all projects from the different courses such as Immunization coverage survey, Data Improvement plan, using Global Routine Immunization strategy practice to improve coverage, and reducing inequity and improving coverage into 4 harmonized documents with actionable recommendation and simplified strategies.

    Nigeria Ex-scholars have decided to go beyond learning, acquiring of certificate to creating lasting impact in the world of immunization in her country and globally, that will have significant impact in improving immunization coverage and strengthen Health system. This is an innovation!.

    Nigeria Ex-Scholars are leading the way for other countries’ scholars to follow, this is becoming more interesting because of high level of commitment and enthusiasm that have been seen by Nigeria ex-scholars and others towards impact acceleration. We continue to brace up until we make impact.

    Bravo to Nigerians Ex-scholars

  • Dear viewers

    KVG team wishes to share the "mini" successful story of one page with photos for information.

    Cross learning visit to an established "Demo-Site", practicing the acquired operational knowledge in the home institution on returning, retro visit for further fine tuning is one of the simplest, surest public health interventions in rapidly scaling up / replicating right practices for the successful outcome of a programme.

     Attached is "mini" example.

     Way forward: Opportunities to expand the benefit to wider geographical area in the state and the country.

     With warm regards

    Holla n Team   



  • Dear all 

    I wish to share the highlights of above CME held today (30-06-2019) by the IAP Dakshinakannad as felt need in association with District Health and Family Welfare officer, SMO WHO country office Mangaluru, KVG Medical College, Yenepoya Medical College, KVG Medical College Sullia, ~78 participants - mainly private practitioners.

    wish you happy reading



  • We are pleased to announce the launch of our new resource library available here: 

    What can you expect from the library: 

    - A faster (less than 1 second!) and more powerful search engine with more filters (type of document, category, language, disease, author...) 

    - More documents as our Cold Chain Equipment documents are now also available in the library  

    - You can now mass download your search result into a zip that includes a csv file with the resources info and all the uploaded files attached 

    - It's optimized for mobile devices 

    - You can choose between two grid views or a list presentation 

    - You can easily post comments on each document page 

    - The downlaod page offers a suggestion of related resources 


    And as before, if you see there's a relevant missing document, you can upload it in the resource library to make it available to all! 

    Our resource library is one of the most exhaustive immunization-related online library, we hope you'll enjoy it!

    Please do leave a post here if you have any question! 

  • EHC is a valuable method of obtaining excess energy from an SDD refrigerator, however an autonomous solar direct system powering USB ports is a simpler, more reliable and less expensive method of providing auxiliary power.

    USB ports can be powered directly from a solar panel, no batteries are required. The conversion device is simple and reliable; these ports can be used for charging cell phones, ipads, lights and AA or AAA batteries.There are a large variety of lights available: lanterns, directional lights, headlamps and lights with motion sensors. Jump starting car batteries can also be charged by a USB port. If desired a 12 volt port could also be incorporated to power a fan and if needed a 12 Volt battery. USB charged devices typically require an average of 3 watts of charging power. Twelve watts of solar per USB port will supply reliable charging at the beginning and end of the solar day and during overcast conditions. For 4 ports a 48 watt module would provide highly reliable power. This would charge at least 8 devices each day.

    Having an autonomous system for auxiliary loads has a number of advantages:

    - With EHC’s the controller is designed for a specific brand and model of refrigerator. An autonomous solar system will work with all types of refrigerators.
    - As a consequence of working with only a specific brand and model of refrigerators the aggregate cost of testing will be very high.
    - Testing must also be carried out for each specific type of load, resistive, battery charging, etc.
    - Trouble shooting system in the field will be much simpler with an autonomous power system there will not be the possibility of interaction between the two systems.
    - The autonomous system with USB ports would be inexpensive and easy to install.
    - When solar conditions are poor the autonomous system will provide more reliable power for a greater portion of the day.

    I would be glad to discuss the pros and cons of this system further. EHC’s are a good concept because a 60 watt load is typically powered by a 300 watt array. However, I think a separate autonomous system is a more appropriate solution.

  • Dear viewers


    Learning is a continuous prosess, attached is one such example applicable for the entire country with ~28000 planning units; presenting the attachment as an evidence for continuous learning.


    With best wishes 

    Holla n Team


  • Announcing a new Topic resource page: EPI Core Reference Materials, now available on TechNet here:

    On this page, you will have accesss to a list of key reference materials published by the WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI), organized by antigen, themes, and groups. This page will continue to be updated as new global resources become available, so check back regularly! 

    Remember you can also find all documents, as well as additional immunization materials, in the Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals (IVB) Document Centre on the WHO web.


  • Dear all

    I encountered operational challege were during SIA, specifically OBR using mOPV2 antigen. I observed that the fixed post team were given only bOPV which is the right antigen for routine while ignoring the purpose of the campaign (mOPV2 not given). They were intructed to give both mOPV2 and bOPV concurrently in other to ensure children received RI and SIA doses. When we reffered to the stakeholders it was revealed that guideline stipulated that, child should receive only mOPV2 and resheduled for bOPV next contact. i have little imformation that needs clarification from immunzation experts and/or refference materials for capacity building in support of the guideline.

    1. What is the possible consequence of given mOPV2 and bOPV at same time? any scientific justification.

    2. Weighing the risk of missed oppurtunities and combining both antigens at same, which one should i prioritised?

    Thanks alot waiting for your input.

  • Dear Sir/Madam

    Wish to share that under the aegis of  IIHMR University, Jaipur, 05 days International training program on “Procurement and Supply Chain Management of Essential Medicines & In Vitro Diagnostics”  is scheduled from 26-30 August, 2019 at the IIHMR University Jaipur, India

    The objective of the training program is to provide technical guidance for establishing a robust procurement and supply chain framework for ensuring supply of good quality essential medicines and diagnostics

    Program Contents : -

    Managing selection of essential medicines and diagnostics 

    • Selection criteria’s
    • Significance of EML, EDL, STD and Formularies

    Quantification and Forecasting

    • Methods of quantification 

    Procurement of essential medicines and diagnostics

    • Strategic objectives of good pharmaceutical procurement
    • How to formulate tender specifications
    • Tender evaluation
    • Selecting correct procurement type
    • Selection of appropriate supplier
    • Procurement laws and regulations
    • Pooled procurement mechanism 

    Warehousing, Storage and Distribution

    • Guidelines for good storage practices
    • Receiving and arranging commodities
    • Monitoring and evaluation of drug distribution system 

    Quality Assurance and Donation of medicines

    • WHO Prequalification of Medicines Program (WHO PQP)
    • Quality inspections-Sampling and survey process   
    • Combating Not of standard drugs/spurious drugs
    • National guidelines on donation of medicines

    Max-Min Inventory control

    • Types of Inventory control systems 

    Logistic Management Information System (LMIS)

    • Types of Logistics records and their significance

    Rational use of drugs

    • Role of drugs and therapeutics committee
    • Diagnosis, prescribing, dispensing and patient adherence

    Pricing and sustainable financing

    • Donor funding and pricing mechanism

    Monitoring and evaluation of supply chain

    • Indicators for M&E of supply chains

    Policy and legal framework for procurement and supply chain

    • National medicines policy
    • Hands on training on Noninvasive techniques and rapid detection techniques for determining drug quality (Raman handheld spectroscopy)
    • Field visit to drug warehouse   

    PROGRAMME FEE        

    • For Indian participants                : Rs 37,500 per participant plus 18% GST
    • For Foreign participants             : USD 700 per participant plus 18% GST

    The fees cover tuition fees, training material, stay in air-conditioning room (twin-sharing basis), breakfast, lunch, dinner, tea/coffee during the program and pick-up and drop from Jaipur airport/railway station/bus stand. Welcome dinner and short-trip to historical and cultural importance places in Jaipur would be offered by the University in honor of the participants. Participants would be encouraged to use library facilities. Around the clock internet facility (Wi-Fi) is available for the participants.

    The travel tickets from the country of origin to Jaipur and vice versa are to be borne by the participant/sponsoring agency.


    • Early Bird Discount: Nominations received with payments on/before 4-weeks (29th July 2019) will be entitled to an early bird discount of 10%.
    • Group Discount: Any organization sponsoring four or more participants to the program will be entitled for a discount of 20% on the total fee payable provided that at least four participants attend the program.
    • Maximum Discount: Organization can avail themselves of both the discount subject to maximum discount of 20%.

    I am sure that you will find it useful for the organization/national health system program.

    I would be grateful, if you could participate/nominate interested candidates in the training program.

    You may forward to concerned department also

    Kindly send the interest to the program coordinator at  

    Looking forward for your kind cooperation and support to make the program success.

    A word of response would be appreciated.



    Dr.Saurabh kumar Banerjee 

    M.Pharm, Ph.D., MBA

    Associate  Professor and Program Coordinator

    The IIHMR University,

    1 Prabhu Dayal Marg, Near Sanganer Airport

    Jaipur (Pin-302029), Rajasthan, INDIA

    Office: +91 141 3924700, Ext: 789, 

    Mobile +91-8890398067


  • Dear all


    A visiting officer was discussing about as to how to practically keep vaccines in the cold-chain equipment at service points / planning units. Visiting officer was also discussing as to why the domestic refrigerator is not recommended by the CDC even for keeping vaccines as alternate equipment. On completing the discussion, thought of presenting the same in the coming Academic Society Meeting for the benefit of staff nurse, medical students, interns, post graduates who may have to provide vaccination services in their profession. Hence, we made this PPT using the photos taken at different planning units in different districts and states at different times for illustration. This is the draft PPT for presenting on 24-04-2019.

    Happy viewing

    Holla n Team

  • Supply Chain Strategic Focus Area

    Advance the Market Availability of Solar Energy Harvest Control-Equipped Cold Chain Equipment

    Date of notice: April 1, 2019


    Summary: Manufacturers of World Health Organization (WHO) Performance, Quality and Safety (PQS) prequalified solar direct drive (SDD) appliances that can be coupled with a market-ready energy harvest control (EHC) option are invited to apply for new product field evaluation support. Selection of participants will be limited to funding available in 2019 with selection priority as follows:

    1. WHO PQS prequalified SDD and WHO PQS prequalified EHC; followed by:
    2. WHO PQS prequalified SDD and EHC with evidence of WHO PQS compliance; followed by:
    3. WHO PQS prequalified SDD and market-ready (i.e., post prototype) EHC.

    Application deadline: May 1, 2019, at 17:00 Pacific Daylight Time (Seattle time)

    Awards decision target date: May 15, 2019

    SDD + EHC shipping date (by manufacturers): July–August 2019

    Project completion target date: March 30, 2020

    1.0 Goals and objectives

    The primary goal of Energy Harvest Field Evaluation Support (“the Project”) is to advance the availability and uptake of WHO PQS prequalified Energy Harvest Control (EHC) systems coupled to WHO PQS prequalified vaccine refrigerators, water-pack freezers, and combined vaccine refrigerator/ice pack freezers.

    It has now been demonstrated that solar direct drive (SDD) appliances coupled with an EHC can meet WHO prequalification requirements for safely harvesting excess SDD electrical energy and provide it for other health facility uses. There is interest in market development support to accelerate uptake of EHC systems. Energy harvesting is a new technology requiring technical support for immunization stakeholders to utilize appropriately. Also, as a new technology, WHO requires manufacturers to pass both a laboratory test and field evaluation for full prequalification. The field evaluation aspect is a newer WHO PQS requirement with significant cost to manufacturers and is an obstacle to market entry.

    To support the goal of advancing the availability and uptake of WHO PQS-prequalified EHC systems, Gavi has funded PATH to: (1) provide technical assistance to immunization stakeholders including Gavi, WHO, UNICEF, and national immunization decision makers on EHC-equipped SDDs and (2) provide support to competitively selected SDD manufacturers for fulfilling the WHO PQS field evaluation requirement. This Project will assess EHC and SDD technical performance, user acceptability, and system fit per WHO PQS field test requirements, including submitting a field evaluation to WHO PQS. PATH will be working with Sunny Day LLC, owned by Steve McCarney, as part of the Project.

    2.0 Project roles and responsibilities

    Manufacturers will be required to apply per this invitation, and provide two complete SDD + EHC system kits including solar power system and any energy consuming loads (e.g., lights) included in, or loads recommended for use with, their kit. The manufacturers must provide the kits free of charge and delivered duty free (Incoterm DDF) to the PATH country office in Senegal, where Round One has been successfully completed. The kits are to include the minimum WHO PQS warranty requirements and will become the property of the host country at the conclusion of the Project, including transfer of warranty provisions to host country.

    Performance monitoring plan and monitoring equipment will be designed, provided, and installed by the Project in consultation with manufacturers. Installation of the SDD system including solar array will be by the manufacturer’s service provider (preferably located in Senegal or the West African region) and their costs will be covered by the Project. The Project and Project consultants will supervise all installation activities. Performance data will not be made public; however, it will be reported to WHO PQS, Gavi, UNICEF Supply Division, the manufacturer, and the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs (MOHSA) of the host country, Senegal.

    The Project will:

    1. Coordinate with the Senegal MOHSA to arrange for necessary approvals, including of sites and in-country partners.
    2. Coordinate with PATH office in country to support field evaluation.
    3. Review, comment, and approve project plan and field evaluation criteria.
    4. Communicate with SDD EHC manufacturer(s).
    5. In consultation with manufacturers, select and provide necessary health facility structural and electrical upgrades, loads, and monitoring devices.
    6. Develop evaluation protocol and obtain necessary research ethics approvals, at PATH and in-country.
    7. Coordinate all field evaluation requirement aspects with WHO PQS.
    8. Provide pre-installation site assessments, installation, and post installation support to service provider.
    9. Monitor field evaluation progress and data collection.
    10. Analyze and report field evaluation data.
    11. Review, comment on, and approve final reports to WHO PQS.
    12. Protect all qualitative and quantitative performance data as confidential, except to the parties noted above (WHO PQS, Gavi, UNICEF Supply Division, and Senegal MOHSA).

    3.0 Application requirements

    Note to repeat applicants from Round One: your applications were sufficiently complete; therefore, please highlight any new information since your Round One application. Several changes are being implemented in Round Two. Your application must include user manuals for both the SDD appliance and the EHC system. If your application is selected, the Project will hire your service provider to: (1) conduct pre-installation site assessments at two health facilities selected by the Project for your specific equipment offering; (2) complete installation at two sites; and (3) return for user training at two sites. Manufacturer to provide outline of user training curriculum at time of application. Service provider to complete manufacturer-supplied commissioning form and submit all forms to PATH.

        3.1 One-page summary of all products offered, appliance PQS code, solar array details, load options required or recommended, and delivery time (PATH office, Dakar, Senegal).

        3.2 Support materials including all installation, maintenance, and user manuals, all component specification sheets (e.g., solar module, solar array support structure, array cable, EHC, EHC battery, and loads if provided) and if the proposed EHC is not yet WHO PQS prequalified, submit test results as evidence of compliance with the PQS   specifications. The application must present SDD appliance user manual, energy harvest user manual, user training curriculum outline, and commissioning forms for both the SDD and for the energy harvest system.

        3.3 Manufacturer must agree in writing to:

    1. All terms and conditions noted in this invitation;
    2. Provide to the Project (at no cost to the Project) two complete systems delivered duty paid to PATH office in Senegal;
    3. Facilitate the contracting of your service provider for aforementioned tasks;
    4. Accept PATH-supplied energy loads (e.g., small fans, lights, fetal heart monitor operating on AA rechargeable batteries, 50 Watt hour Lithium battery packs for user selected loads, etc.);
    5. Relegate reporting responsibility to the Project; and
    6. Keep confidential all performance data, quantitative or qualitative (not to be made public).

        3.4   Firm price quotation for service provider tasks noted above. Project to contract the service support by the manufacturer. 

        3.5   Send applications to or before 17:00 (Pacific Daylight Time) on May 1, 2019. Questions also should be emailed before 17:00 (Pacific Daylight Time) on May 1, 2019, to Your questions will be answered confidentially by PATH and/or PATH consultant Steve McCarney (directly and confidentially to the requestor).

  • Recent reports [1] of counterfeit yellow fever vaccination certificates in Zambia follow reports of falsified proof of vaccination documents being used in other countries, including Ethiopia [2], India [3], Nigeria [4], Pakistan [5], Sudan [6], Uganda [7], Tanzania [8] and Zimbabwe [9]. While the World Health Organization (WHO) published guidelines in 1999 [10] to support countries in developing measures to combat counterfeit pharmaceutical products and issued a report in 2017 [11] highlighting the public health and socioeconomic impacts of falsified medical products, neither publication discussed the current problem of false or fraudulently obtained proof of vaccination documentation. Counterfeit proof of vaccination in home-based records (HBRs), particularly those issued to provide documented proof of vaccination against yellow fever virus or polio virus [12], presents a threat to the health and security of countries and their citizens and warrants further discussion and action.

    Given the imperative of preventing the spread of vaccine-preventable diseases at a time when increased air travel and globalization link communities worldwide as never before [13], efforts seem warranted to (1) understand the magnitude and impact of counterfeit proof of vaccination and (2) work with national health authorities to develop practical counterfeit-deterrent strategies as part of the Eliminate Yellow fever Epidemics (EYE) global strategy (2017–2026) [14] as well as ongoing WHO activity around protection of essential medicines and health products [15]. Efforts to combat counterfeiting are also timely and urgent as part of the Global Health Security Agenda [16] as the likelihood of deadly, cross-border epidemics increases [17] and as countries continue to require international travelers to provide proof of vaccination as a prerequisite for entry (or exit) as part of international health regulations recommended by WHO [18]. This directive combined with improved enforcement at ports of entry into a country and a global yellow fever vaccine shortage [19] could further drive the demand for counterfeit vaccination documents.

    As providing proof of vaccination for travelers is one of several important HBR functions [20], HBRs deserve particular attention. For many travelers, proof of vaccination status is provided through a duly completed version of the International Certificate of Vaccination or Other Prophylaxis [18] recommended by the World Health Organization. In June 2007, a revised international certificate of vaccination was adopted following the 2005 revision of the International Health Regulations [21]. The revised certificate replaced the International Certificate of Vaccination or Revaccination Against Yellow Fever but did not include any anti-counterfeit guidelines or recommendations.

    The prevalence and impact of counterfeit medical products highlighted in the 2017 WHO report [11] point to a very real public health problem: a counterfeit problem that is not limited to medicines [22]. In Nigeria counterfeit proof of yellow fever vaccination records have been noted since at least 2012 when travelers from the country holding alleged counterfeit documents were denied entry by officials on arrival in Ghana [23] and South Africa [24]. As a result, the Federal Ministry of Health has attempted to curb the problem by issuing documents that included additional security features; however, a November 2018 report from Lagos airport highlights opportunities for further improvement as the problem of counterfeit documentation may continue [25].

    It is far too easy to dismiss HBR counterfeit incidents as a trivial matter. Such incidents are anything but trivial. More must be done to investigate HBR counterfeiting incidents with local authorities. Additionally, we must leverage existing knowledge and explore novel approaches to combat counterfeit proof of vaccination while also exploring design-related solutions to better ensure the integrity of HBRs. The risks of spread of vaccine-preventable diseases by international travelers is a public health concern [26], placing increased importance on safeguarding HBRs as a verified source of travelers’ vaccination status.



    The author acknowledges the editorial support of Ms Stacy Young of Applied Scientific Consulting in preparing this work.



    1. “Fake Health Certificates Scam Exposed.” Zambia Daily Mail Limited. 29 December 2018. Available online at: Accessed 4 January 2019.

    2. “Ethiopia to Launch Massive Yellow Fever Vaccination.” Ethio Dailypost. 26 June 2018. Available online at: Accessed 4 January 2019.

    3. “Fake Yellow Fever Vaccine Certificates Pose Risk to Whole Indian Population.” RESET. 19 Jul 2013. Available online at: Accessed 4 January 2019.

    4. “Ghana denies Nigerians entry over yellow fever card.” Daily Post. 25 July 2012. Available online at: Accessed 4 January 2019.

    5. “India warns against ‘fake polio certificates’.” DAWN. 9 October 2014. Available online at: Accessed 4 January 2019.

    6. “Sudan’s Vaccination Card Black Market.” The Daily Beast. 31 August 2015. Available online at: Accessed 4 January 2019.

    7. “Travellers Resort to Fake Yellow Fever Cards.” TravelSafe Clinic. 28 October 2016. Available online at: Accessed 4 January 2019.

    8. “Seven in Trouble Over Fake Vaccination Cards.” Daily News. 28 January 2017. Available online at: Accessed 4 January 2019.

    9. “Fake vaccination certs sold.” The Zimbabwean. 9 January 2013. Available online at: Accessed 4 January 2019.

    10. World Health Organization. Counterfeit Drugs. Guidelines for the development of measures to combat counterfeit drugs. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1999. Available online at: Accessed 4 January 2019.

    11. World Health Organization. A study on the public health and socioeconomic impact of substandard and falsified medical products. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. Available online at: Accessed 4 January 2019.

    12. Soghaier MA, Saeed KMI, Zaman KK. Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) has Declared Twice in 2014; Polio and Ebola at the Top. AIMS Public Health. 2015;2(2):218-222. doi: 10.3934/publichealth.2015.2.218.

    13. Brent SE, Watts A, Cetron M, German M, Kraemer MU, Bogoch II, Brady OJ, Hay SI, Creatore MI, Khan K. International travel between global urban centres vulnerable to yellow fever transmission. Bull World Health Organ. 2018;96(5):343-354B. doi: 10.2471/BLT.17.205658.

    14. World Health Organization. Eliminate Yellow fever Epidemics (EYE): a global strategy, 2017–2026. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2017;92(16):193-204.

    15. World Health Organization. Essential medicines and health products. Available online at: Accessed 4 January 2019.

    16. Katz R, Sorrell EM, Kornblet SA, Fischer JE. Global health security agenda and the international health regulations: moving forward. Biosecur Bioterror. 2014;12(5):231-8. doi: 10.1089/bsp.2014.0038.

    17. Suk JE, Van Cangh T, Beauté J, Bartels C, Tsolova S, Pharris A, Ciotti M, Semenza JC. The interconnected and cross-border nature of risks posed by infectious diseases. Glob Health Action. 2014;7:25287. doi: 10.3402/gha.v7.25287.

    18. World Health Organization. International Health Regulations (2005). Third Edition. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2005. Available online at: Accessed 4 January 2019.

    19. “What is behind the global shortage in yellow fever vaccine?” VOA News. 5 May 2016. Available online at: Accessed 4 January 2019.

    20. World Health Organization. Practical Guide for the Design, Use and Promotion of Home-based Records in Immunization Programmes. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2015. Available online at: Accessed 4 January 2019.

    21. Gostin LO, DeBartolo MC, Friedman EA. The International Health Regulations 10 years on: the governing framework for global health security. Lancet. 2015;386(10009):2222-6.

    22. Hamisu Hassan, Kate Kolaczinski, and Angela Acosta. Preventing, identifying, and mitigating the impact of fraud, theft, and diversion of insecticide treated nets: A summary of experience and best practices from country programs. VectorWorks Project, Johns Hopkins University-Center for Communication Programs (JHU-CCP), and Tropical Health LLP. 2016. Available online at: Accessed 4 January 2019.

    23. “Ghana denies Nigerians entry over yellow fever card.” Daily Post. 25 July 2012. Available online at: Accessed 4 January 2019.

    24. “On Yellow Fever, Yellow Cards, Nigeria And South Africa.” Nigeria Health Watch. 6 March 2012. Available online at: Accessed 4 January 2019.

    25. “Investigation: Inside Nigerian airport where cleaners, touts issue fake yellow cards to travelers.” Premium Times. 10 November 2018. Available online at: Accessed 4 January 2019.

    26. Gautret P, Botelho-Nevers E, Brouqui P, Parola P. The spread of vaccine-preventable diseases by international travellers: a public-health concern. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18 Suppl 5:77-84. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2012.03940.x.

  • The BID Initiative is featured in the most recent issue (December 2018) of the MMS Bulletin #148 "Digital Health - A Blessing or Curse for Global Health."

    • "Marrying engineering with health policy to bring digital health to scale," by Steven C. Uggowitzer, Sima C. Newell, Dykki Settle, Alice Liu and David J. Hagan. 

      Just as medical doctors take the Hippocratic Oath as they graduate into their profession, so do many engineers solemnly promise to carry out work to the highest quality, recognizing that any errors may put lives at stake. Given this sharing of fundamental values, engineering is a profession that could be leveraged even further towards public health information systems to address opportunities created by the fusion of the early and relatively informal eHealth and mHealth paradigms into the more mature and complex one that is Digital Health. Recently, the World Health Assembly (WHA) adopted a key resolution on Digital Health, urging member states to assess and prioritise the scale-up of the implementation of digital technologies towards the “universal access to health for all”(WHA 71.1, 2018). For the full article, visit the MMS Bulletin.

    • "The challenges of implementing a data use culture," by Hassan Mtenga, Dr. Alex Mphuru, Dawn Seymour, and Laurie Werner. 

      To increase coverage and equity of routine immunization services, the government of Tanzania is strengthening the data use culture through the implementation of a package of data quality and use interventions, including an electronic immunization registry, for immunization service delivery. Three key phases for achieving scale as a government-owned model emerged during the implementation: user-centered design and testing, PATH-led implementation, and government-led implementation with scale-up. A combination of factors contributed to achieving a government-owned model of implementation and ultimately showed significant time and cost savings, as well as greater ownership and ability to sustain and scale the interventions. For the full article, visit the MMS Bulletin.

    Other articles in the MMS Bulletin #148 can be found here.


  • Hello,

    I am brand new to TechNet-21 so this will be my first posting. 

    I am trying to find an SDD (Solar Direct Drive) freezer which will maintain -10C and below. The product I need to store in Nigeria is surfactant (injected into the lungs of premature babies with collapsed lungs to give them life) which must be kept at that cold temperature to maintain a shelf life of 3 years. The electricity supply throughout the country in Nigeria is erratic and undependable, thus I would like to install an SDD freezer with a distributer (in Lagos) which would be independent of grid power. Surfactant is a very high value and low volume product so a smaller (50-100 liters) SDD freezer would be ideal.

    My understanding is the freezers designed for freezing ice packs may not maintain -10C and colder thoughout a 24 hour cycle which includes night.

    The only other solar option I am aware of is to revert back to older technology that relies on solar charged batteries to either operate a 12 or 24 volt DC freezer of use an inverter to power an AC powered freezer. I was hoping to eliminate the weak link in the system, the battery.

    To date I have not been able to identify an SDD freezer among the mainline manufacturers -- Dulas, SunDanzer, SureChill, Vestfrost, Haier.

    Thanks for any advice!


  • Dear TechNet-21 community,

    Further to the publication of the English and French versions of the Decommissioning and safe disposal of cold chain equipment guidance earlier this year (available here, we are glad to share with you that the Arabic and Russian versions of the document are now available in the TechNet-21 Resource Library.

    To access these documents, please click on the following links:
    1. For the Arabic version:
    2. For the Russian version:

    On behalf of UNICEF and WHO, I wish you an insightful reading and look forward to interesting and fruitful discussions with the TechNet-21 community!

    Michelle Seidel,

    Cold Chain Specialist - Immunization Supply Chain, UNICEF Programme Division (UN City Copenhagen)


  • New materials are available on the "Coverage Surveys" page of TechNet-21 ( on the "17 Steps to do a Coverage Survey".

    This collection contains a series of documents & presentations outlining the basic steps of a vaccination coverage survey, as well as some presentations on commonly asked questions and variations on a coverage survey. This also contains links to resources (templates, models, examples, etc).

    This link takes you to the drop box folder with all the materials.
  • A new issue of Vaccine is now available:

    Rotavirus Surveillance, Safety and Economic Data before Vaccine Introduction: a Global Perspective from the World Health Organization Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network 
    Edited by Adam L. Cohen, Negar Aliabadi, Fatima Serhan, Jacqueline E. Tate, Patrick Zuber, Umesh D. Parashar

    This can be accessed from:

  • A textbook from lectures we used to give at the “Ciro de Quadros Vaccinology Course for Latin America” just got published by the Sabin Institute:

    The book is available in English and Spanish.

    My chapter on information systems for EPI (part of section 3) is attached.

Gavi Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation WHO Unicef