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New Vaccine Vial Monitor (VVM) web page

Interested in knowing more on Vaccine Vial Monitors (VVM)? TechNet just released a new dedicated page for you to find all important resources and information on VVM in one place: 

Logistical challenges for potential SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and a call to research institutions, developers and manufacturers

Commentary paper authored by me, 

VVM Webinar video and presentation now available

Dear Community, The video and presentation of the great webinar on Vaccine Vial Monitor (VVM) that took place on Tuesday 21 are now available! Link to the presentation:

Upcoming webinar on VVM-based vaccine management - January 21st @ 4pm CET

Please join us for a webinar on vaccine vial monitor (VVM)-based vaccine management, on the occasion of publishing of “The Book of VVM: Yesterday-today-and-tomorrow” by Umit Kartoglu. The webin

Buffered Cold Chain a new approach

After reading Umit's book my interest in what I call the "buffered Cold Chain" BCC, was renewed.In his book I found the history and the description of the obstacles which were overcome very interes

"THE BOOK OF VVM: Yesterday-today-and-tomorrow" is now available for free download

The story of a time and temperature indicator (vaccine vial monitor) that has dramatically changed the course of vaccine management practices as well as shaped the future of cold chain, THE BOOK OF

Call for examples of country materials on VVM

Dear colleagues, I am working on a new book project on VVM. I would like to include examples of the following and shall be grateful if you could kindly contact me. Your help is much

Type of VVM assigned to vaccines

Dear all,  Can any one explain how the decision is made as to which type of VVM is assigned to different vaccines, with examples? Are same vaccines manufactured by different manufactures a


Imagine that VVM’s do not exist. As an alternative a tiny electronic device could be developed which would record the temperature history of the vaccine vial. The device would be attached to the

Should we be confidently proud of the global improvements on immunization coverages? What can we do better to improve temperature monitoring in vaccine cold chain and ensure potent vaccines are usually used to vaccinate our clients?

Most of the countries now have improved immunization coverages and reach more children with vaccination, but we still need to monitor the potency of vaccines that are given on top of the hi

This TechNet-21 webinar on vaccine vial monitor (VVM)-based vaccine management was given on the occasion of the publishing of “The Book of VVM: Yesterday-today-and-tomorrow” by Umit Kartoglu. During this webinar, the presenters discussed the...

Grâce aux PCV (pastille de contrôle de vaccin), les agents de santé disposent d'un moyen rapide et facile de déterminer si un vaccin a été exposé à une chaleur excessive et probablement endommagé, et s'il doit être jeté.

La présente note d’orientation révise et remplace la Déclaration de politique générale de l’OMS : utilisation deflacons de vaccin multidoses entamés lors de séances ultérieures de vaccination (‎WHO/V&B/00.09)‎ parue en 2000

Comment lire les pastilles de contrôle des vaccins.

In this course, you’ll learn about the impact that extreme temperatures can have on vaccines and how to interpret vaccine vial monitors (VVMs) to identify vaccines that can and cannot be used. Additionally, you will learn how to sort vaccines...

This specification describes general performance requirements for nonelectronic Combined Vaccine Vial Monitor (VVM) and Threshold Indicator (TI).

This document describes the procedure for verifying the performance for a Vaccine Vial Monitor (VVM), which is designed to warn health workers when the cumulative time-temperature exposure of a vial of vaccine has exceeded a pre-set limit,...

This document describes the procedure for verifying the performance of threshold indicators. This protocol covers the testing of passive products only.

This specification describes the performance requirements for non-electronic threshold indicators which give a visual warning when a certain temperature has been exceeded during transport and storage of vaccines.

This specification describes general performance requirements for Vaccine Vial Monitor (VVM).

This specification describes general performance requirements for nonelectronic Combined Vaccine Vial Monitor (VVM) and Threshold Indicator (TI).

Umit Kartoglu reviews the critical last mile between the service point and the end user. He further discusses the best solutions for storage and transport of products and best practices for temperature monitoring.

Simona Zipursky reviews the studies on taking vaccines beyond the cold chain all published in peer-review journals and comments on how VVMs could be instrumental in these operations.

Simona Zipursky reviews the cold chain challenges to demonstrate that problems are both in developing and industrialized countries and questions whether VVM should also be the answer for both.

Serge Ganivet reviews the VVM use at the most periphery through different examples and brings new perspectives on how to make best decisions based on the expiry and VVM readings.

This video is about choosing which VVM to dispatch for a lower facility

This is a video about VVM use at the most periphery (outreach)

The evolution of the VVM has been a long one, starting more than 40 years ago. This advancement has now been chronicled in The Book of VVM: Yesterday-today-and-tomorrow, by Dr. Umit Kartoglu, a former scientist for WHO.

The purpose of this study is to test the utilization of VVMs by the health personnel in the field and to monitor the change in vaccine wastage rates with the introduction of VVMs and open vial policy, as recommended by WHO.

This study was conducted to test under field conditions a methodology for evaluating the capacity of VVMs to (i) reduce vaccine wastage and (ii) monitor the status of the cold chain at the point of OPV use.

Joint policy statement on the implementation of vaccine vial monitors : the role of vaccine vial monitors in improving access to immunization

Joint policy statement on the use of vaccine vial monitors in immunization services

This information bulletin addresses the varied implications of different types of vaccine vial monitors (VVMs), notably VVM category type 7 (VVM7) and VVM category type 14 (VVM14), on vaccines such as the Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) and the...

Umit Kartoglu reviews the requirements for product arrival, storage and dispatch and analyses the role of VVM in effective stock management for each step. Special emphasis is given to the relation of VVM and expiry date in illustrating how VVM...

Denis Maire, WHO, summarizes the technical characteristics of VVMs and explains how they work.

Rajeev Ranjan Gupta presents how to use the VACCINE VIAL MONITOR , PSM Lectures, Vaccines , TP 7

VVMs give health workers a quick and easy way to determine if a vaccine has been exposed or too much heat and likely damaged, and should be discarded.

Temptime video explaining VVM Heatmarker.

Gavi Alliance video introduction to VVM innovation. A vaccine vial monitor (VVM) is a smart label. Triggered by a temperature rise above a certain threshold, it changes colour if the vial has been exposed to too high a temperature, or for too long.

An infographic that explains visually how to read a vaccine vial monitor (VVM) to determine whether a vaccine can be used.

This presentation was used during the TechNet-21 webinar on vaccine vial monitor (VVM)-based vaccine management, on the occasion of the publishing of “The Book of VVM: Yesterday-today-and-tomorrow” by Umit Kartoglu. During this webinar, the...

Umit Kartoglu reviews temperature monitoring devices used in a typical vaccine cold chain and analyses how the readings relate to each other when there are more than one device at a particular point. This analysis is done from the VVM perspective.

WHO Vaccine Management Handbook: How to monitor temperatures in the vaccine supply chain. WHO IVB 15.04

After the 2010 earthquake, Haiti committed to introducing 4 new antigens into its routine immunization schedule, which required improving its cold chain (ie, temperature-controlled supply chain) and increasing vaccine storage capacity by installing...

This document describes the cold-chain monitor, the vaccine vial monitor (VVM), Freeze WatchTM, Stop!WatchTM and the diphtheria-tetanus vaccine (DT) & tetanus toxoid (TT) shipping indicator. To retain maximum potency a vaccine should be kept in its...

One way to strengthen immunization supply chains is to expand the use of vaccines in a controlled temperature chain (CTC). A method for increasing vaccine access and coverage, especially among hard-to-reach populations, CTC permits certain vaccines...

Introduction: The vaccine vial monitor (VVM) registers cumulative heat exposure on vaccines over time. As low- and lower-middle-income countries transition beyond support from the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (Gavi), they will...

Vaccine vial monitor (VVM) is now commonly used for vaccines that are included in the National Immunization Schedule in India. It helps to indicate the viability of the vaccine and of the proper functioning of the cold chain. This is useful as it...

This document aims to establish a common vaccine innovation vocabulary to help ensure clarity in communications about innovations applied to vaccine products to increase their programmatic suitability, reduce overall costs, bolster supply security...

Attached is a new flyer that lists all the online courses available as part of the Immunization eLearning Initiative. This digital learning program was developed by WHO and UNICEF experts to provide knowledge vital to EPI...

A case study has been published to share information about some of the change management and motivational strategies deployed by UNICEF and WHO to support high levels of participation in the Immunization eLearning Initiative. The case study can be...

The Immunization eLearning Initiative, developed by WHO and UNICEF, now offers four rapid e-courses that can be taken in less than one hour. These courses include: Multi-Dose Vial Policy, Vaccine Vial Monitors, Microplanning for Immunization, and...

Technet was relaunched at the 2001 conference as Technet21. The New Delhi 2001 meeting, organized back-to-back with SIGN, welcomed a total of 107 participants including 23 participants representing national immunization programmes from all...

The 1998 Technet consultation was held at the WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen from 16 to 20 March 1998. This consultation gathered a wide range of experts and partners active in immunization activities worldwide. This consultation reached...

This report summarises the presentations and discussions that took place at the fifth Technet Conference that was held in Washington from 31 May to 4 June 1994.

This report summarises the discussion of experts meeting at the Technet Conference held in Casablanca, Morocco from 18-22 November, 1991

The first decade of this century was perhaps the most productive in the history of vaccine development, seeing the release of a plethora of new life-saving vaccines for rotavirus diarrhoea, types of meningitis and pneumonia, and for human...

In October 2012, the Meningococcal A conjugate vaccine MenAfriVac was granted a label variation to allow for its use in a controlled temperature chain (CTC), at temperatures of up to 40 °C for not more than four days. This paper describes the first...

The Expanded Program on Immunization was designed 40 years ago for two types of vaccines: those that are heat stable but freeze sensitive and those that are stable to freezing but heat labile. A cold chain was developed for transport and storage of...

Le présent module indique comment se servir correctement de conteneurs passifs (glacières et porte-vaccins) pour le transport domestique et les opérations en périphérie.

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