89 results
International Vaccine Access Center
The following report displays data and figures on the introduction status of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), rotavirus vaccine, and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) both globally and in 73 Gavi...
International Vaccine Access Center
The following report displays data and figures on the introduction status of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), rotavirus vaccine, and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) both globally and in 73 Gavi...
International Vaccine Access Center
The following report displays data and figures on the introduction status of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), rotavirus vaccine, and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) both globally and in 73 Gavi...
International Vaccine Access Centre
The following report displays data and figures on the introduction status of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), rotavirus vaccine, and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) both globally and in 73 Gavi...
World Health Organization (WHO)
The Global Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (GCCPE/GCC) met in February 2018. It noted that although no WPV paralytic cases had been reported in Pakistan since November...
Pedreira, Cristina et al.
This article synthesizes the important lessons learned from polio eradication in the Region of the Americas, including initial and more recent challenges and best practices, as well as particular...
YingWan et al.
The worldwide switch to inactivated polio vaccines (IPV) is a key component of the overall strategy to achieve and maintain global polio eradication. To this end, new IPV vaccine delivery systems may...
International Vaccine Access Center
The following report displays data and figures on the introduction status of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), rotavirus vaccine, and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) both globally and in 73 Gavi...
David A. Muller et al.
To secure a polio-free world, the live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) will eventually need to be replaced with inactivated poliovirus vaccines (IPV). However, current IPV delivery is less...
Lee M. Hampton et al.
essential for creating a polio-free world, and eliminating that risk will require stopping use of all oral polio vaccines (OPVs) once all types of wild polioviruses have been eradicated. In many...
Kimberly M. Thompson et al.
Background: Comparing model expectations with the experience of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) containing serotype 2 (OPV2) cessation can inform risk management for the expected cessation of OPV...
Kimberly M. Thompson et al.
Background: Recent detections of circulating serotype 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus in northern Nigeria (Borno and Sokoto states) and Pakistan (Balochistan Province) and serotype 1 wild poliovirus in...
Margaret Farrell et al.
The phased withdrawal of oral polio vaccine (OPV) associated with the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 began with the synchronized global replacement of trivalent OPV (tOPV)...
Samantha B. Dolan et al.
Background: In 2013, the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) recommended that all 126 countries using only oral polio vaccine (OPV) introduce at least 1...
Iria Preza et al.
Background: Albania introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into its immunization system in May 2014, increasing the maximum recommended number of injectable vaccines given in a single visit from...
YuhongXiao & HenryDaniell
Oral polio vaccine (OPV) and Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) have distinct advantages and limitations. IPV does not provide mucosal immunity and introduction of IPV to mitigate consequences of...
Soleine Scotney et al.
Introducing a new vaccine is a large-scale endeavor that can face many challenges, resulting in introduction delays and inefficiencies. The development of national task teams and tools, such as...
Lynda U. Osadebe et al.
Background: Kano State, Nigeria, introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into its routine immunization (RI) schedule in March 2015 and was the pilot site for an RI data module for the National...
Concepcion F. Estivariz et al.
Background: We assessed programmatic adaptations and infants\' uptake of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) after its introduction into the routine immunization schedule in Bangladesh. Methods:...
Mallick M. Billah et al.
Background: Introduction of inactivated polio vaccine creates challenges in maintaining the cold chain for vaccine storage and distribution. Methods. We evaluated the cold chain in 23...
Antoinette Ba-Nguz, Alex Adjagba, Toto Wisnu Hendrarto, Nelson K. Sewankambo, Celia Nalwadda, Annette Kisakye
National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) are established by national authorities to provide them with independent, bias-free, objective, and evidence-based advice on vaccines and...
Santosh Gurung et al.
The World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR) has maintained its polio-free status since 2000. The emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), however, remains a risk, as...
Sunil Bahl et al.
This analysis describes an innovative and successful approach to risk identification and mitigation in relation to the switch from trivalent to bivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) in the 11 countries...
Kamal Fahmy et al.
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative has reduced the global incidence of polio by 99% and the number of countries with endemic polio from 125 to 3 countries. The Polio Eradication and Endgame...
Cristina Pedreira et al.
The synchronized introduction of the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and the switch from trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV) has constituted an effort without...
Carol Tevi-Benissan et al.
The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic plan outlines the phased removal of oral polio vaccines (OPVs), starting with type 2 poliovirus–containing vaccine and introduction of inactivated polio...
International Vaccine Access Center (IVAC)
The following report displays data and figures on the introduction status of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), rotavirus vaccine, and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) both globally and in 73 Gavi...
Anne-Line Blankenhorn, Tania Cernuschi, Michel J. Zaffran
n May 2012, the World Health Assembly declared the completion of poliovirus eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health and called for a comprehensive polio endgame strategy. The...
Daniela Decina et al.
Withdrawal of type 2 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in OPV-using countries required regulatory approval for use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine and bivalent OPV in routine immunization. Worldwide, a...
Jennifer Rubin et al.
The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 calls for the phased withdrawal of OPV, beginning with the globally synchronized cessation of tOPV by mid 2016. From a global vaccine supply...
Ian Lewis et al.
A total of 105 countries have introduced IPV as of September 2016 of which 85 have procured the vaccine through UNICEF. The Global Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 called for the...
Lisa Menning et al.
The requirements under objective 2 of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013–2018—to introduce at least 1 dose of inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV); withdraw oral...
Simona Zipursky et al.
The Immunization Systems Management Group (IMG) was established as a time-limited entity, responsible for the management and coordination of Objective 2 of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic...
Simona Zipursky et al.
The Immunization Systems Management Group (IMG) was established to coordinate and oversee objective 2 of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013–2018, namely, (1) introduction of ≥1...
Nicoletta Previsani et al.
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) continues to make progress toward the eradication target. Only one of the three serotypes, wild poliovirus (WPV) type 1 (WPV1), is still circulating,...
Elizabeth B Brickley & Peter F Wright
With the globally coordinated switch from the trivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) to the bivalent OPV in April, 2016, the international public health community entered a new chapter in the endgame of...
Belete Tafesse et al.
Introduction: Ethiopia experienced several WPV importations with a total of 10 WPV1 cases confirmed during the 2013 outbreak alone before it is closed in 2015. We evaluated supplemental immunization...
Eduardo Lopez-Medina et al.
Background: Since April 2016 inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) has been the only routine source of polio type 2 protection worldwide. With IPV supply constraints, data on comparability of...
International Vaccine Access Center (IVAC)
The VIEW-hub report: Global Vaccine Introduction and Implementation, is also now available. A summary companion to IVAC’s interactive VIEW-hub platform, the VIEW-hub report displays data and...
Mona Marin et al.
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis (polio). Since then, wild poliovirus (WPV) cases have declined by >99.9%, from an estimated 350,000 cases of polio each year to...
P. L. Lopalco
Polio cases due to wild virus are reported by only three countries in the world. Poliovirus type 2 has been globally eradicated and the last detection of poliovirus type 3 dates to November 2012....
National Emergency Operation Centre, Pakistan
In this National Emergency Action Plan (NEAP) for 2016 - 2017, the main objective is to stop transmission in the core reservoirs and maintain or increase population immunity against polio in the rest...
Peter F Wright et al.
Background Identification of mechanisms that limit poliovirus replication is crucial for informing decisions aimed at global polio eradication. Studies of mucosal immunity induced by oral poliovirus...
Abhishek Kunwar, Sunil Bahl, Mohammad Ahmad
Evidence generated through research studies has guided programmatic actions and fine-tuned strategies for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). However, many gaps still persist in the...
Haldar P & Agrawal P
Global Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-18 calls for the ultimate withdrawal of oral polio vaccines (OPV) from all immunization programs across the world. The phased globally...
International Vaccine Access Center
The following report displays data and figures on the introduction status of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), rotavirus vaccine, and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) both globally and in 73 Gavi...
Margarita Pons-Salort et al.
In August 2015, we estimated vaccine-induced population immunity against serotype-2 poliomyelitis for 1 January 2004–30 June 2015 and produced forecasts for April 2016 by district in Nigeria and...
Julie Garon et al.
As the polio endgame progresses, the world will increasingly rely on inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) for protection against polio (wild and vaccine-related) and for risk mitigation during the phased...
Habib MA et al.
BACKGROUND: Considering the current polio situation Pakistan needs vaccine combinations to reach maximum population level immunity. The trial assessed whether inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV)...
Sunil Bahl et al.
Wild poliovirus type 2 was declared eradicated in September 2015. As part of a globally-synchronized effort to withdraw Sabin poliovirus type 2 vaccine, India switched from use of trivalent oral...
Ed Clarke et al.
Background The introduction of the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) represents a crucial step in the polio eradication endgame. This trial examined the safety and immunogenicity of IPV given...
International Vaccine Access Center at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
The following report displays data and figures on the introduction status of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), rotavirus vaccine, and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) both globally and in 73 Gavi...
Lisa Rubin & Keren Landsman
The May 28, 2013 isolation of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in routine sewage samples signaled the beginning of the first protracted incident of WPV1 transmission in Israel since 1988. A door-to-door...
dwin J Asturias et al.
Background Replacement of the trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) with bivalent types 1 and 3 oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV) and global introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) are...
Edward P K Parker & Nicholas C Grassly
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is on the brink of a major milestone. As of April, 2016, the serotype 2 component of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) will be removed from all immunisation...
Claudia Reinheimer et al.
Europe was certified to be polio-free in 2002 by the WHO. However, wild polioviruses remain endemic in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria, occasionally causing polio outbreaks, as in...
Jacob John et al.
Intestinal immunity induced by oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is imperfect and wanes with time, permitting transmission of infection by immunised children. Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) does...
G. Bencsko and T. Ferenci
Recent polio outbreaks in Syria and Ukraine, and isolation of poliovirus from asymptomatic carriers in Israel have raised concerns that polio might endanger Europe. We devised a model to calculate...
E Anis et al.
The last widespread circulation of wild poliovirus in Israel was 25 years ago, resulting in a national outbreak with cases of permanent paralytic polio [3]. The major difference between the 1988...
Mangal TD et al.
The \"endgame\" for worldwide poliomyelitis eradication will entail eventual cessation of the use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in all countries to prevent the reintroduction of vaccine-derived...
Darius Soonawala et al.
For global eradication of poliomyelitis, inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) needs to become available in all countries. Using fractional-doses (reduced-doses) may impact affordability and optimize...
Mohamed A Sheikh et al.
As part of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013–2018,†† which aims to discontinue all use of OPV after eradication of WPV, IPV is to be introduced by the end of 2015 into the...
Matthew F. Daley et al.
In this safety surveillance study of more than 200,000 DTaP–IPV vaccine recipients, there was no evidence of increased risk for any of the pre-specified adverse events monitored. Continued...
R Bruce Aylward
On 27 March 2014, India and the entire WHO South East Asia Region were certified polio-free , bringing to 80% the proportion of the world’s population that now lives in regions entirely free of...
Michelle Morales et al.
In 2015, wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission was identified only in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The widespread use of live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has been crucial in polio eradication...
Resik S et al.
This evaluation shows that vaccinating infants with a single fractional dose of IPV can induce priming and seroconversion in more than 90% of immunized infants.
Kathleen M O\'Reilly et al.
The researchers conclude that the effectiveness of bivalent OPV is comparable with monovalent OPV and can therefore be used in eradicating serotype 1 poliomyelitis whilst minimising the risks of...
Jennifer G. Cooke & Farha Tahir
Since 1988, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI)—an international partnership of government and private institutions—has reduced the number of reported polio cases worldwide by more...
Concepción F Estívariz
The continued presence of polio in northern India poses challenges to the interruption of wild poliovirus transmission and the management of poliovirus risks in the post-eradication era. We aimed to...
John F Modlin
2012 will mark the 24th year of WHO\'s Global Poliomyelitis Eradication Initiative.1 Eradication has proven more difficult than originally envisioned because of geopolitical events, such as war,...
The fight against endemic polio transmission is restricted to three countries: Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria. In 2012, when the world saw the lowest numbers of cases from polio-reporting...
Zulfiqar A. Bhutta
Before the development of the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in 1955, poliomyelitis paralysed and killed up to half a million people every year. The introduction of the IPV in the USA led to a...
Julie R Garon & Walter A Orenstein
The world is now closer to global polio eradication than ever before. In 1988, when the World Health Assembly set its sights on complete eradication of polio, an estimated 350 000 paralytic cases...
Roland W Sutter et al.
Polio eradication needs a new routine immunisation schedule—three or four doses of bivalent type 1 and type 3 oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV) and one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV),...
Edna S Bar-On et al.
Meta-analysis was performed to pool the results of 18 studies. There were no data on clinical outcomes for the primary outcome and all studies used immunogenicity and reactogenicity (adverse events)....
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Since the 1988 World Health Assembly resolution to eradicate poliomyelitis (polio), transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has been interrupted in all countries except Afghanistan, Nigeria, and...
Verdijk P et al.
Safety and immunogenicity of Sabin-IPV (sIPV) was evaluated in a double-blind, randomized, controlled, dose-escalation trial in the target population. Healthy infants (n=20/group) aged 56-63 days,...
Wanfei Yang et al.
Open vial vaccine wastage in multi-dose vials is a major contributor to vaccine wastage. Although switching from 10-dose vials to 5-dose vials could reduce wastage, a higher total cost could be...
Even though we have already covered 99% of the path to eradicate poliomyelitis from the world, this disease is still causing paralysis in children. Its eradication means not only the end of wild...
Sonia Resik et al.
The researchers conducted a follow-on study to a phase I randomized, controlled trial conducted in Cuba, 2012, to assess the persistence of poliovirus antibodies at 21–22 months following booster...
Kraan H et al.
In the near future oral polio vaccine (OPV) will be replaced by inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) as part of the eradication program of polio. For that reason, there is a need for substantial amount of...
Miguel O\'Ryan et al.
Bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV; types 1 and 3) is expected to replace trivalent OPV (tOPV) globally by April, 2016, preceded by the introduction of at least one dose of inactivated poliovirus...
Maduka Donatus Ughasoro et al.
Introduction of inactivated polio vaccine is imminent and may encounter the challenges that face new vaccines especially vaccine hesitancy. The study evaluated factors that may contribute to...
DRE Nijsten et al.
The WHO European Region has been declared polio-free since 2002. By 2010, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) was the only polio vaccine in use in the EU/EEA for the primary vaccination of children. A...
International Vaccine Access Center (IVAC)
As countries prepare to introduce IPV, there is an opportunity to leverage lessons learned from countries that have already introduced the vaccine. The purpose of this document is to give an in-depth...
Nellie Bristol, Chris Millard
This report examines the role the Independent Monitoring Board of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative has played in eradication efforts and looks for lessons learned for other global health...
World Health Organization (WHO)
This report, prepared by the Secretariat for the Decade of Vaccines Global Vaccine Action Plan, serves as the basis for the independent review. As was the case in 2013 and 2014, this report reviews...
Julie Garon, Walter A. Orenstein, Katherine Seib, Ananda S. Bandyopadhyay
Live attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) are the tools being used to achieve eradication of wild polio virus. Because OPV can rarely cause paralysis and generate...