WHO 032865 orig

The primary objective of a vaccination coverage survey is to provide a coverage estimate for selected vaccines. This page provides a list of documents related to the design, implementation, analysis, and reporting of vaccination coverage surveys. The documents have been organized into the categories below and are provided here to assist in conducting an effective vaccination coverage survey.

This page was created and is maintained by the WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) Strategic Information Group. Much of this material was brought together at the "WHO Tools and Guidance on Immunization Data Quality and Vaccination Coverage Survey" meeting, which took place in Istanbul, Turkey in December 2015. For more information on this meeting, click here. To access the meeting report, click here.

 

 Practical guidance to do a vaccination coverage survey

This collection contains a series of presentations outlining the basic steps of a vaccination coverage survey, as well as some presentations on commonly asked questions and variations on a coverage survey. The collection also can be found in the TechNet Resource Library:

http://www.technet-21.org/library/main/collection?cid=56e44c55eed99

Title Author Year Type Language
Coverage survey variations WHO 2015 Presentation English
FAQ presentation WHO 2015 Presentation English
Methods used for monitoring WHO 2015 Presentation English
Practical Guidance: 17 Steps to do a Coverage Survey WHO 2018 Document English
Step 1, 2, & 3 presentation WHO 2015 Presentation English
Step 4, 5, & 6 presentation WHO 2015 Presentation English
Step 7, 8, & 9 presentation WHO 2015 Presentation English
Step 10, 11, & 12 presentation WHO 2015 Presentation English
Step 13 presentation WHO 2015 Presentation English
Step 14 presentation WHO 2015 Presentation English
Step 15 & 16 presentation WHO 2015 Presentation English
Step 17 presentation WHO 2015 Presentation English

 

 Analytic plan

This collection includes documents to assist with the development of an analytic plan for vaccination coverage survey data. The collection also can be found in the TechNet Resource Library:

http://www.technet-21.org/library/main/collection?cid=56e00e70eb407

Title Author Year Type Language
Analytic Definitions WHO 2016 Document English
Definitions of Timeliness WHO 2016 Document English
Suggested Analyses WHO 2016 Document English

 

 Budget examples

This collection includes documents to assist with the development of a budget for a vaccination coverage survey. The collection also can be found in the TechNet Resource Library:

http://www.technet-21.org/library/main/collection?cid=56e403d85a4b7

Title Author Year Type Language
Budget Example Document English
DHS Budget Example DHS Document English
DHS Budget Template DHS Document English
MICS Budget Template MICS Document English
WHO Cluster Survey Budget Template WHO 2015 Document English

 

 Report outline

This collection contains an outline for developing a report for a vaccination coverage survey. The collection also can be found in the TechNet Resource Library:

http://www.technet-21.org/library/main/collection?cid=56f0f967d21f0

Title Author Year Type Language
Vaccination Coverage Survey Report outline WHO 2016 Document English

 

 Request for proposal templates

This collection contains several examples of request for proposals. The collection also can be found in the TechNet Resource Library:

http://www.technet-21.org/library/main/collection?cid=56f0f8c8efe49

Title Author Year Type Language
Request For Proposal - Confidentiality WHO Document English
Request For Proposal Template - 50k+ WHO Document English
Request For Proposal Template - less than 50k WHO Document English

 

 Sample terms of reference and profiles

This collection contains several sample terms of reference for positions such as survey coordinator and interviewers. The collection also can be found in the TechNet Resource Library:

http://www.technet-21.org/library/main/collection?cid=56e44737000a3

Title Author Year Type Language
Sample personnel descriptions (for surveys) - Haiti MOH - CDC - IHE Document English
ToR - Consultant for pilot test of post SIA survey MOH St Lucia - PAHO Document English
ToR - Consultant for pilot test of post intensified immunization activity MOH St Lucia - PAHO Document English
ToR - Coordinator for MMR vaccination coverage survey MOH St Lucia - PAHO Document English
ToR - Data analysis and report writing for MMR vaccination coverage survey MOH St Lucia - PAHO Document English
ToR - Data entry clerk for MMR vaccination coverage survey MOH St Lucia - PAHO Document English
ToR - Data management coordinator for MMR vaccination coverage survey MOH St Lucia - PAHO Document English
ToR - Interviewers for MMR vaccination coverage survey MOH St Lucia - PAHO Document English
ToR - PH Nurse and Nurse Practitioner for MMR vaccination coverage survey MOH St Lucia - PAHO Document English
ToR - Survey coordinator for supplemental national coverage survey MOH St Lucia - PAHO Document English

 

 Survey forms and tools

This collection contains useful documents for carrying out a vaccination coverage survey, including sample surveys, sample log sheets, a project timeline, and equipment lists. The collection also can be found in the TechNet Resource Library:

http://www.technet-21.org/library/main/collection?cid=56e40a6631c5a

Title Author Year Type Language
Sample Equipment List - DHS DHS Document English
Sample MR coverage log - Haiti MOH CDC - IHE 2012 Document English
Sample Recruitment Log - Haiti MOH CDC - IHE 2012 Document English
Sample consent form - Haiti MOH CDC - IHE 2012 Document English
Sample household log sheet - Haiti MOH CDC - IHE 2012 Document English
Sample questionnaire - Bolivia MOH-PODEMA-PAHO 2013 Document English
Sample questionnaire - Haiti MOH CDC - IHE 2012 Document English
Sample timeline (1) - Haiti MOH CDC - IHE 2012 Document English
Sample timeline (2) - Haiti MOH-CDC IHE 2012 Document English

 

 Vaccination card picture management

This collection contains information on the protocol for collecting and managing vaccination card pictures. The collection also can be found in the TechNet Resource Library:

http://www.technet-21.org/library/main/collection?cid=56f0f9a15faa3

Title Author Year Type Language
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) - Vaccination Card Picture Management WHO 2016 Document English

 

 Current WHO reference manuals

This collection contains current WHO reference manuals on vaccination coverage surveys. The collection also can be found in the TechNet Resource Library:

http://www.technet-21.org/library/main/collection?cid=56e436326f970

 

 Other WHO reference manuals

This collection contains various WHO reference manuals related to vaccination coverage surveys. The collection also can be found in the TechNet Resource Library:

http://www.technet-21.org/library/main/collection?cid=56e43bd1a380d

 

 DHS training manuals

This collection contains documents to assist with the training of multiple members within a vaccination coverage survey team. The collection also can be found in the TechNet Resource Library:

http://www.technet-21.org/library/main/collection?cid=56e405543e4c4

 

 Coverage survey publications

This collection contains several publications on vaccination coverage surveys from various regions and countries. The collection also can be found in the TechNet Resource Library:

http://www.technet-21.org/library/main/collection?cid=56f29b073d461

Title Author Year Type Language
2005-06 and 2011-12 Honduras Demographic and Health Survey Analysis of Vaccination Timeliness, Co-administration and Factors Associated with Vaccination Status - Draft Report of Findings PAHO, CDC 2014 Document English
A computer simulation of household sampling schemes for health surveys in developing countries. Bennett 1994 Journal article English
An Assessment of the Quality of National Child Immunization Coverage Estimates in Population-based Surveys Brown 2002 Journal article English
Ascertainment of childhood vaccination histories in northern Malawi. Jahn 2008 Journal article English
Assessment of neonatal tetanus elimination in an African setting by lot quality assurance cluster sampling (LQA-CS). Cotter 2003 Journal article English
Assessment of vaccine coverage by 30 cluster sampling technique in rural Gandhinagar, Gujarat Sheth 2012 Journal article English
Catching-up with pentavalent vaccine: Exploring reasons behind lower rotavirus vaccine coverage in El Salvador. Suarez-Casteneda 2015 Journal article English
Cluster-sample surveys and lot quality assurance sampling to evaluate yellow fever immunisation coverage following a national campaign, Bolivia, 2007. Pezzoli 2009 Journal article English
Cluster sampling to assess immunization coverage: a review of experience with a simplified sampling method. Henderson 1982 Journal article English
Comparison of two cluster sampling methods for health surveys in developing countries. Miliigan 2004 Journal article English
Comparison of two survey methodologies to assess vaccination coverage. Luman 2007 Journal article English
Don't spin the pen: two alternative methods for second-stage sampling in urban cluster surveys Grais 2007 Journal article English
Estimating vaccination coverage: validity of household-retained vaccination cards and parental recall. Luman 2008 Journal article English
From Agadez to Zinder: estimating coverage of the MenAfriVac™ conjugate vaccine against meningococcal serogroup A in Niger, September 2010 - January 2012. Caini 2013 Journal article English
Immunization coverage and its determinants among children born in 2008-2009 by questionnaire survey in Zhejiang, China. Hu 2015 Journal article English
Impact of methodological \\"shortcuts\\" in conducting public health surveys: Results from a vaccination coverage survey Luman 2008 Journal article English
Maternal recall error of child vaccination status in a developing nation. Valadez 1992 Journal article English
Measles and rubella vaccination coverage in Haiti, 2012: progress towards verifying and challenges to maintaining measles and rubella elimination. Tohme 2014 Journal article English
PAHO Newsletter 2014 (Honduras) PAHO 2014 Journal article English
Performance of small cluster surveys and the clustered LQAS design to estimate local-level vaccination coverage in Mali. Minetti 2012 Journal article English
Potential for improving age-appropriate vaccination coverage by maximizing the 18-month well-child visit. Shimabukuro 2007 Journal article English
Publication: Diaz-Ortega Salud Publica Mex 2013 (Mexico) Diaz-Ortega 2013 Journal article English
Ranking states' immunization coverage: an example from the National Immunization Survey. Barker 2005 Journal article English
Routine childhood vaccination programme coverage, El Salvador, 2011-In search of timeliness. Suarez-Castaneda 2014 Journal article English
Socioeconomic inequalities and vaccination coverage: results of an immunisation coverage survey in 27 Brazilian capitals, 2007-2008. Barata 2012 Journal article English
Surveys of measles vaccination coverage in eastern and southern Africa: a review of quality and methods used Kaiser 2015 Journal article English
The accuracy of mother's reports about their children's vaccination status. Gareaballah 1989 Journal article English
The accuracy of mothers' reports of child vaccination: evidence from rural Egypt. Langsten 1998 Journal article English
Vaccination Week in the Americas, 2011: an opportunity to assess the routine vaccination program in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Sanchez 2015 Journal article English
Vaccination coverage in Haiti: results from the 2009 national survey. Rainey 2012 Journal article English
Vaccination coverage of children aged 12-23 months in Gaziantep, Turkey: comparative results of two studies carried out by lot quality technique: what changed after family medicine? Ozcirpici 2014 Journal article English
Vaccination coverage of health care personnel working in health care facilities in France: results of a national survey, 2009. Gunthmann 2012 Journal article English
Vaccination visits in early childhood: just one more visit to be fully vaccinated. Luman 2001 Journal article English
Validity of reported vaccination coverage in 45 countries. Murray 2003 Journal article English
Varicella vaccine uptake in Shandong Province, China. Xu 2012 Journal article English
Whom and where are we not vaccinating? Coverage after the introduction of a new conjugate vaccine against group A meningococcus in Niger in 2010. Kim 2012 Journal article English
Yellow fever vaccination coverage following massive emergency immunization campaigns in rural Uganda, May 2011: a community cluster survey Bagonza J, Rutebemberwa E, Mugaga M, Tumuhamye N, Makumbi I 2013 Journal article English

 

 Methodological publications

This collection contains several technical and methodological publications on vaccination coverage surveys. The collection also can be found in the TechNet Resource Library:

http://www.technet-21.org/library/main/collection?cid=56e41182ec3f3

Title Author Year Type Language
A computer simulation of the EPI survey strategy. Lemeshow 1985 Journal article English
A not quite as quick but much cleaner alternative to the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) Cluster Survey design. Turner 1996 Journal article English
Assessing and monitoring vaccination coverage levels: lessons from the Americas. Dietz- Vance; Venczel- Linda; Izurieta- Héctor; Stroh- George; Zell- Elizabeth R; Monterroso- Edgar & Tambini- Gina 2004 Journal article English
Assessing equivalence: an alternative to the use of difference tests for measuring disparities in vaccination coverage. Barker 2002 Journal article English
Choosing a Cluster Sampling Design for Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Surveys Hund, Lauren; Bedrick, Edward J.; Pagano, Marcello 2015 Journal article English
Cluster Lot Quality Assurance Sampling: Effect of Increasing the Number of Clusters on Classification Precision and Operational Feasibility Hiromasa Okayasu,1 Alexandra E. Brown,1 Michael M. Nzioki,2 Alex N. Gasasira,2 Marina Takane,1 Pascal Mkanda,2 Steven G. F. Wassilak,3 and Roland W. Sutter1 Journal article English
Comments on ‘‘Monitoring vaccination coverage: Defining the role of surveys” Pond R1, Mounier-Jack S2. 2016 Journal article English
Consultancy services for conducting an evaluation of immunisation coverage monitoring methodology and process Wolfgang Weber, EHG Xavier Bosch-Capblanch, SCIH/STI 2009 Document English
Does adjusting for recall in trend analysis affect coverage estimates for maternal and child health indicators? An analysis of DHS and MICS survey data Ngandu NK1, Manda S2,3, Besada D4, Rohde S4, Oliphant NP5, Doherty T4,6 2016 Journal article English
Effectiveness of Using Mobile Phone Image Capture for Collecting Secondary Data: A Case Study on Immunization History Data Among Children in Remote Areas of Thailand Jandee, Kasemsak; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Khamsiriwatchara, Amnat; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Wongwit, Waranya; Wansatid, Peerawat 2015 Journal article English
Evaluating Confidence Interval Methods for Binomial Proportions in Clustered Surveys Dean 2015 Journal article English
Immunization Coverage Surveys and Linked Biomarker Serosurveys in Three Regions in Ethiopia Travassos MA1, Beyene B2, Adam Z3, Campbell JD1, Mulholland N4, Diarra SS5, Kassa T2, Oot L3, Sequeira J3, Reymann M1, Blackwelder WC1, Wu Y1, Ruslanova I1, Goswami J1, Sow SO5, Pasetti MF1, Steinglass R3, Kebede A2, Levine MM1. 2016 Journal article English
Issues and considerations in the use of serologic biomarkers for classifying vaccination history in household surveys Adam MacNeil∗, Chung-won Lee, Vance Dietz Journal article English
LQAS: User Beware Rhoda, Dale A; Fernandez, Soledad A; Fitch, David J; Lemeshow, Stanley 2010 Journal article English
Lot Quality Assurance Sampling to Monitor Supplemental Immunization Activity Quality: An Essential Tool for Improving Performance in Polio Endemic Countries Brown AE1, Okayasu H1, Nzioki MM2, Wadood MZ3, Chabot-Couture G4, Quddus A5, Walker G1, Sutter RW1. 2014 Journal article English
Measurement of immunisation coverage Burton 2009 Journal article English
Measuring Coverage in MNCH: A Validation Study Linking Population Survey Derived Coverage to Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health Care Records in Rural China Li Liu1, Mengying Li1, Li Yang2, Lirong Ju3, Biqin Tan4, Neff Walker1, Jennifer Bryce1, Harry Campbell5, Robert E. Black1, Yan Guo6* 2013 Journal article English
Measuring Coverage in MNCH: Tracking Progress in Health for Women and Children Using DHS and MICS Household Surveys Hancioglu 2013 Journal article English
Measuring coverage in MNCH: design- implementation- and interpretation challenges associated with tracking vaccination coverage using household surveys. Cutts- Felicity T; Izurieta- Hector S & Rhoda- Dale a 2013 Journal article English
Measuring coverage in MNCH: total survey error and the interpretation of intervention coverage estimates from household surveys. Eisele 2013 Journal article English
Measuring populations to improve vaccination coverage Nita Bharti1,2, Ali Djibo3, Andrew J. Tatem4,5,6, Bryan T. Grenfell4,7 & Matthew J. Ferrari1,8 2016 Journal article English
Measuring the performance of vaccination programs using cross-sectional surveys: a likelihood framework and retrospective analysis. Lessler J, Metcalf CJE, Grais RF, Luquero FJ, Cummings DAT, Grenfell BT 2011 Journal article English
Monitoring vaccination coverage: Defining the role of surveys Cutts FT1, Claquin P2, Danovaro-Holliday MC3, Rhoda DA4. 2016 Journal article English
Reply to comments on Monitoring vaccination coverage: Defining the role of surveys. Cutts FT1, Claquin P2, Danovaro-Holliday MC3, Rhoda DA4. 2016 Journal article English
Seroepidemiology: an underused tool for designing and monitoring vaccination programmes in low- and middleincome countries Cutts FT1, Hanson M2. 2016 Journal article English
Use and abuse of rapid monitoring to assess coverage during mass vaccination campaigns. Luman- Elizabeth T; Cairns- K Lisa; Perry- Robert; Dietz- Vance & Gittelman- David 2007 Document English
Validity of reported vaccination coverage in 45 countries Murray 2003 Journal article English
Validity of vaccination cards and parental recall to estimate vaccination coverage: a systematic review of the literature. Miles 2013 Journal article English