Solar direct-drive vaccine refrigerators and freezers

This evidence brief provides supply chain managers in low- and middle-income countries with a summary of how recent solar direct-drive (SDD) refrigeration projects have performed, highlighting problems encountered and the steps that were taken to resolve them. An overview of how SDD technology works, and how to make sure that SDD technology is the right choice, is also provided.


  • English

Publication year







  • Supply chain & logistics


  • Colombia
  • Kenya
  • United Republic Of Tanzania


  • World Health Organisation (WHO)


  • Performance monitoring
  • Refrigerator / freezer

WHO Regions

  • African Region
  • Region of the Americas

Topic references


Achieving immunization targets with the comprehensive effective vaccine management (EVM) frameworkUNICEF, World Health Organization (WHO)2016GuidanceEnglish
Cold room temperature mapping studiesWorld Health Organization (WHO)2018GuidanceEnglish
EVM assessment tools and user guidesWorld Health Organization (WHO)2019RepositoryEnglish
EVM Global Data AnalysisWorld Health Organization (WHO)2018GuidanceEnglish
EVM Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)UNICEF, World Health Organization (WHO)GuidanceEnglish, French
How to Develop a Continuous Improvement Plan (cIP)UNICEF, World Health Organization (WHO)2018GuidanceArabic, English, French
Immunization supply chain and logistics - A neglected but essential system for national immunization programmesWorld Health Organization (WHO)2014GuidanceEnglish, French
Off-label use of vaccinesPieter Neels et al.2017Journal articleEnglish
Perception of health workers on the use of 30-day temperature recordersWorld Health Organization (WHO)2018GuidanceEnglish
Perception of health workers on the use of remote temperature monitoring systemsWorld Health Organization (WHO)2018GuidanceEnglish
Solar direct-drive vaccine refrigerators and freezers2017GuidanceEnglish
System design approach to improve the immunization supply chainWorld Health Organization (WHO)2018GuidanceEnglish
Temperature monitoring study: a fully documented process to detect weaknesses in the supply chainWorld Health Organization (WHO)2018GuidanceEnglish
Vaccine Management HandbookUNICEF, World Health Organization (WHO)2015GuidanceFrench
WHO guidance note: Vaccine diluents, revision 2015World Health Organization (WHO)2015GuidanceEnglish, French
WHO policy on the use of opened multi-dose vaccine vials (2014 Revision)World Health Organization (WHO)2014GuidanceFrench

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Added on: 2017-03-21 14:20:49

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