Vaccine vial monitor availability and use in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review

Introduction: The vaccine vial monitor (VVM) registers cumulative heat exposure on vaccines over time. As low- and lower-middle-income countries transition beyond support from the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (Gavi), they will assume full responsibility for vaccine financing and procurement. It is unclear to what extent countries transitioning out of Gavi support will continue to include VVMs on their vaccines. This paper aims to systematically review evidence on VVM availability and use in low- and middle-income countries to document factors behind global access to and country demand for VVMs. Such results could help identify actions needed to ensure continued use of VVMs in countries that transition out of Gavi support. Methods: We performed a systematic review of electronic databases, reference lists, and grey literature in English and French languages with publication dates from 2005 onwards. The studies included were analyzed for the following outcomes: (1) availability and deployment of


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Added on: 03 May, 2017
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