Freeze-preventive passive containers – technical resources

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This page features background information and guidance on freeze prevention in the immunization supply chain, also known as the cold chain, as it relates to passive containers. Section 1 provides a high-level overview of the impact of freezing vaccines, and Section 2 shares passive technologies that prevent freezing in passive containers and related activities. Sections 3 and 4 contain literature on the effects of freezing temperatures on vaccine potency and instances of freezing in the cold chain. The final section gives additional resources supporting the introduction of new freeze-preventive passive containers.

  1. Freeze prevention and why it is important
  2. New freeze-preventive technologies
  3. Literature on vaccine potency
  4. Examples of freezing in the cold chain
  5. Additional information and resources

 

1. Freeze prevention and why it is important

The following resources underscore the negative effects of exposing vaccines to freezing temperatures.

Title Author Year Type Language
Above Zero: Strategies to Prevent Vaccine Freezing PATH 2013 Video English
Effects of freezing on vaccine potency PATH 2003 Document English
Freezing temperatures in the vaccine cold chain: A systematic literature review Matthias DM, Robertson J, Garrison MM, Newland S, Nelson C 2007 Journal article English
Is freezing in the vaccine cold chain an ongoing issue? A literature review Hanson CM, George AM, Sawadogo A, Schreiber B 2017 Journal article English
Special Issue of Vaccine on Building Next Generation Immunization Supply Chains Various 2017 Journal article English

 

2. New freeze-preventive technologies

The following table contains the activities stakeholders are engaged in to prevent freeze exposure in the supply chain.

Title Author Year Type Language
Cold chain equipment optimisation platform Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance 2016 Document English
Forecast report: Freeze-safe vaccine carriers—Modeling the potential global market PATH 2016 Document English
Innovations in cold chain equipment for immunization supply chains Robertson J, Franzel L, Maire D. 2017 Journal article English
Phase-change materials for vaccine cold chain applications PATH 2016 Document English
Report on the Freeze-Preventive Passive Container Meeting PATH, UNICEF 2015 Document English
Research disclosure: Freeze-prevention design for vaccine carriers, cold boxes and other passive cold chain equipment to prevent freezing of vaccines, drugs or pharmaceuticals in the cold chain PATH 2016 Document English
Technology update: Freeze-Preventive Vaccine Carriers PATH 2018 Document English

 

3. Literature on vaccine potency

The following resources underscore the negative effects of exposing vaccines to freezing temperatures.

Title Author Year Type Language
Assessing the potency and immunogenicity of inactivated poliovirus vaccine after exposure to freezing temperatures White JA, Estrada M, Weldon WC, et al 2018 Journal article English
Cold chain study: danger of freezing vaccines Milhomme P 1993 Journal article English
Comparison of hepatitis B vaccine coverage and effectiveness among urban and rural Mongolian 2-year-olds Edstam JS, Dulmaa N, Nymadawa P, Rinchin A, Khulan J, Kimball AM 2002 Journal article English
Effects of freezing on DPT and DPT-IPV vaccines, adsorbed Dimayuga R, Scheifele D, Bell A 1995 Journal article English
Factors affecting the immunogenicity and potency of tetanus toxoid: implications for the elimination of neonatal and non-neonatal tetanus as public health problems Dietz V, Galazka A, van Loon F, Cochi S 1996 Journal article English
Hepatitis B vaccine McLean AA, Shaw R Jr 1982 Journal article English
Hepatitis B vaccine in healthy hospital employees Klotz SA, Normand R, Silberman R 1986 Journal article English
Performance and potency of tetanus toxoid: implications for eliminating neonatal tetanus Dietz V, Milstien JB, van Loon F, Cochi S, Bennett J 1996 Journal article English
Physical, chemical and immunological stability of CHO-derived hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) particles Diminsky D, Moav N, Gorecki M, Barenholz Y 1999 Journal article English
Storage at -3 degrees C for 24 h alters the immunogenicity of pertussis vaccines Boros CA, Hanlon M, Gold MS, Roberton DM 2001 Journal article English

 

4. Examples of freezing in the cold chain

The following resources provide examples of freezing in the cold chain.

Title Author Year Type Language
Evaluation of an outside-the-cold-chain vaccine delivery strategy in remote regions of western China Ren Q, Xiong H, Li Y, Xu R, Zhu C 2009 Journal article English
Frequent exposure to suboptimal temperatures in vaccine cold-chain system in India: results of temperature monitoring in 10 states Murhekar MV, Dutta S, Kapoor AN, et al 2013 Journal article English
Investigating cold-chain system and efficacy of vaccines reaching the end user in Turkey and related regulations Özdemir H, Özer AY 2010 Journal article English
Use of cool water packs to prevent freezing during vaccine transportation at the country level Kartoglu U, Ganivet S, Guichard S, et al 2009 Journal article English
Visual Indicators on Vaccine Boxes as Early Warning Tools to Identify Potential Freeze Damage Angoff R, Wood J, Chernock MC, Tipping D 2015 Journal article English

 

5. Additional resources

This section contains additional information and related resources.

Title Author Year Type Language
Freeze-Preventive Vaccine Carrier: Frequently Asked Questions PATH 2018 Document English
Freeze-Preventive Vaccine Carriers: A Job Aid For Health Workers and Cold Chain Logisticians PATH 2017 Document English
How to monitor temperatures in the vaccine supply chain World Health Organization 2015 Document English,french
How to use passive containers and coolant-packs for vaccine transport and outreach operations World Health Organization 2015 Document English,french
Preventing freeze damage to vaccines World Health Organization Document English
Temperature sensitivity of vaccines World Health Organization 2006 Document English

 

 

Photos left to right: PATH/Simona Zipursky, PATH/Tina Lorenson, PATH/Tina Lorenson.