Journal article

Impact of Controlled Temperature Chain (CTC) approach on immunization coverage achieved during the preventive vaccination campaign against meningitis A using MenAfriVac in Togo in 2014

Method: We conducted a survey from 9 to 14 March 2015 (for approximately 3 months) after the end of the vaccination campaign in these four regions. Interviewees were selected using two stages cluster sampling stratified according to the regions. MenAfriVac vaccine in Controlled Temperature Chain (CTC) was used in 10 districts, in Togo.

Results: A total of 2707 households were surveyed and 9082 people aged 1-29 years were interviewed. The average age of the individuals surveyed was 11.8±7.7 years and sex-ratio (H/F) was 1.01. The average number of individuals per household was 5.7 and that of persons aged 1-29 years targeted in the campaign was 3.4. Out of 9082 people surveyed 8889 (98%) were vaccinated. Multivariate analysis showed that the factors associated with immunization coverage using MenAfrivac vaccine were: habitual residence in the area at the time of the campaign (AOR = 4.52; 95%CI = [4.07 - 4.97]) and level of information about the campaign before it starts (AOR=2.42; 95%CI = [2.05 - 2.80]). By contrast, there were no differences in vaccination coverage between the areas based on whether the CTC approach was used or not (AOR=0.09; 95%CI = [-0.27 - 0.45]). Two hundred and seven respondents (2.3%) reported that they had Adverse Event Following Immunisation (AEFI) after the administration of the vaccine. These were usually minor AEFI involving fever, abscesses and swelling at the injection site.

Conclusion: Survey results show that the use of CTC in a country with limited resources such as Togo doesn't have a negative impact on immunization coverage. Indeed, there was no difference between immunization coverage in CTC and non-CTC areas. It is important to capitalize on the experience gained in order to use vaccines by Expanded Program of Immunization in CTC approach especially in countries with limited resources in terms of cold chain availability.


  • English

Publication year



Journal article


  • Supply chain & logistics


  • Meningococcal meningitis


  • Togo


  • Controlled temperature chain (CTC)
  • Coverage monitoring

Topic references


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