Vaccine Vial Monitor (VVM) - technical resources

jon Pearman

VVMs (Vaccine Vial Monitors) are small indicators that adhere to vaccine vials and change color as the vaccine is exposed to cumulative heat, letting health workers know whether the vaccine has exceeded a pre-set limit beyond which the vaccine should not be used. This page provides a list of useful resources on VVMs, organised into the following sections:

What is a VVM?

The following resources introduce the VVM and explain how it works.

Vaccines work - video explainerTemptime2019TrainingEnglish
What is a vaccine vial monitor (VVM)?Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance2019TrainingEnglish

How to read a VVM

Resources that explain how to read a VVM to determine whether a vaccine can be safely used for immunization.

Comment lire une pastille de contrôle des vaccins (PCV)?Immunization Academy2018TrainingFrench
How does a VVM work?EPELA, World Health Organization (WHO)2020TrainingEnglish
How to Read a VVMImmunization Academy2018TrainingSwahili
How to read a VVM - InfographicWorld Health Organization (WHO)2020TrainingEnglish
Pastilles de contrôle des vaccinsOMS - Organisation Mondiale de la Santé2020TrainingFrench
UNICEF Agora online course: Vaccine Vial Monitors (VVM)UNICEF2020TrainingEnglish
Vaccine vial monitor, PSM LecturesRajeev Ranjan Gupta2017TrainingHindi

VVM training videos for healthcare workers

Videos on how healthcare workers should use VVMs.

À quelle température devez-vous conserver les vaccins?Immunization Academy2020TrainingFrench
Administering: Using the Multi-Dose Vial PolicyImmunization Academy2020TrainingSwahili
Choosing which VVM to dispatch for a lower facilityEPELA, World Health Organization (WHO)2013GuidanceEnglish
Comment suivre le stock de vaccins et du matériel d'injection sûreImmunization Academy2020TrainingFrench
Comment surveiller les températures dans un établissement de santéImmunization Academy2020TrainingFrench
Conducting Supervision: Providing on the job trainingImmunization Academy2020TrainingSwahili
Dispenser une formation pratique sur le lieu de travailImmunization Academy2020TrainingFrench
Disposition des vaccins à l'intérieur du réfrigérateurImmunization Academy2020TrainingFrench
Monitoring the Cold chain: Monitoring Temperatures at health facilitiesImmunization Academy2020TrainingHausa
Monitoring the cold chain: What Temperatures Should Vaccines Be?Immunization Academy2020TrainingHausa
Monitoring Vaccine Stock: Monitoring Vaccine and Safe-Injection StockImmunization Academy2020TrainingSwahili
Packing for an Immunization SessionImmunization Academy2020TrainingSwahili
Que faire lorsque la température d'un réfrigérateur est trop élevée ou trop basseImmunization Academy2020TrainingFrench
Que faut-il emporter pour une séance de vaccination?Immunization Academy2020TrainingFrench
Repair and Maintenance: What to Do When a Refrigerator Temperature Is Too High or LowImmunization Academy2020TrainingHausa
TASK - VVM use at the most periphery (outreach)EPELA, World Health Organization (WHO)2013GuidanceEnglish
Utilisation de réfrigérateurs à ouverture frontaleImmunization Academy2020TrainingFrench
Utilisation des réfrigérateurs coffre a ouverture par le haut avec des paniersImmunization Academy2020TrainingFrench
Vaccine Management: Arranging Vaccines Inside Any RefrigeratorImmunization Academy2020TrainingSwahili
Vaccine Management: Using Front-Opening RefrigeratorsImmunization Academy2020TrainingSwahili
Vaccine management: Using Top-Opening Refrigerators With BasketsImmunization Academy2020TrainingSwahili
Vaccine management: Using Top-Opening Refrigerators Without BasketsImmunization Academy2020TrainingSwahili

VVM resources for supply chain managers

Resources that provide guidance for supply chain managers on how VVMs should be utilised by national immunization programs.

VVM in a Controlled Temperature Chain (CTC)

Resources on CTC with reference to VVMs and Peak Temperature Threshold Indicators (PTTI).

Assessing the potency of oral polio vaccine kept outside of the coldchainSimona Zipursky et al.2011Journal articleEnglish
Benefits of using vaccines out of the cold chain: Delivering Meningitis A vaccine in a controlled temperature chain during the mass immunization campaign in BeninSimona Zipursky, Mamoudou Harouna Djingarey, Jean-Claude Lodjo, Laifoya Olodo, Sylvestre Tiendrebeogo, Olivier Ronveaux2014Journal articleEnglish
Extending supply chains and improving immunization coverage and equity through controlled temperature chain use of vaccinesRaja Rao, Debra Kristensen, Anna-Lea Kahn2017Journal articleEnglish
Vaccines beyond the cold chain - Simona ZipurskyEPELA, World Health Organization (WHO)2013GuidanceEnglish

WHO PQS performance specifications

Resources that provide technical reference material on the science behind VVM.

[WHO_PQS_E006_IN04.1] Threshold Indicator SpecificationWorld Health Organization (WHO)2020GuidanceEnglish
[WHO_PQS_E006_IN04.VP.1] Vaccine Threshold Indicator Verification ProtocolWorld Health Organization (WHO)2020GuidanceEnglish
[WHO_PQS_E006_IN05-VP.4] Vaccine Vial Monitor Independent type testing protocolWorld Health Organization (WHO)2020GuidanceEnglish
[WHO_PQS_E006_IN05.4] Vaccine Vial Monitor Performance SpecificationWorld Health Organization (WHO)2020GuidanceEnglish
[WHO_PQS_E006_IN06-VP.1) Combined VVM and Threshold Indicator Verification ProtocolWorld Health Organization (WHO)2020GuidanceEnglish
[WHO_PQS_E006_IN06.1] Combined VVM Threshold Indicator Performance SpecificationWorld Health Organization (WHO)2019GuidanceEnglish

Other VVM resources

Journal articles, webinars, and other publications that provide background information on the VVM.

Cold chain challenges everywhere - Simona ZipurskyEPELA, World Health Organization (WHO)2013GuidanceEnglish
Impact of VVMs on Wastage and Cold Chain Monitoring During NIDs in NepalB. Aylward, G.P. Ojha, J. Andrus, J. luna, M.B. Bista, N. Rajbhandari1998Case studyEnglish
Interpretation of VVM in relation to other temperature monitoring devices - Umit KartogluEPELA, World Health Organization (WHO)2019TrainingEnglish
Last mile - Umit KartogluEPELA, World Health Organization (WHO)2013GuidanceEnglish
The Book of VVM: Yesterday-today-and-tomorrowUmit Kartoglu2020GuidanceEnglish
Using VVM as a stock management toolEPELA, World Health Organization (WHO)2013TrainingEnglish
Vaccine instability in the cold chain: mechanisms, analysis and formulation strategiesKumru OS et al.2014Journal articleEnglish
Vaccine storage and handling practices among routine immunization service providers in a metropolitan city of north-central NigeriaA. G. Salaudeen , H. A. Ameen, M. M. B. Uthman, O. A. Bolarinwa, O. I. Musa, S. A. AderibigbeJournal articleEnglish
Vaccine Vial Monitor (VVM)-based vaccine managementUmit Kartoglu2020PresentationEnglish
Vaccine vial monitor availability and use in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic reviewPär Eriksson et al.2017Journal articleEnglish
Vaccine Vial Monitors Impact Study during 1997 National Immunization Days in TurkeyBirhan Altay, Oya Zeren Afsar1998Case studyEnglish